Social Structure/Types of Societies Review
Terms in this set (45)
is the process by which
people act toward or respond to other people.
This is the
foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
framework of societal institutions (economy, politics, and religion)
social practices (rules and social roles)
that make up a society and organize and limit people's behavior. gives us the ability to interpret the social situations we encounter.
Ex. Family, religion, law, economy and class are all social structures.
At the macrolevel, the social structure of a society has several essential elements:, Social institutions, Groups, Statuses, Roles, Norms
social position based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Born into a family
social position that a person assumes as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort. General position in society - occupation, ed., & $.
is the most important status a person occupies.
dominates all of the individual's other statuses
and is the overriding ingredient in determining a person's general social position. vital to how we view ourselves, how we are seen by others, and how we interact with others.
It confers to high or low levels of personal worth and dignity on people.
Those are not characteristics that we inherently possess; they are derived from the status we occupy.
A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties is:
b) impression management
c) a status
A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties is a
material signs that inform others of a person's specific status
Just as wearing a wedding ring proclaims that a person is married, owning a Rolls-Royce announces that one has "made it."
dynamic aspect of a status
Whereas we occupy a status, we play a role.
A role is a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
Your role as a student is to study and do well at school not to instruct all classes.
way a specific role ought to be played.
How a person actually plays a role.
incompatible demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time
Challenge is to occupy 2 social positions simultaneously.
Being a student and working at a job. Need to work scheduled hours and study/take a test.
incompatible demands are built into a single status
that the person holds
Difficulties that result from the differing demands and expectations associated with the same social position.
Working at a job that you're not qualified to work
Stages of Role Exit
leave a role central to their identity
: (ex. Retirement, divorce) self-identity is changed.
1 Doubt / frustration
2 Search for alternatives - separation, leave of absence.
3 The turning point - take an action.
4 New identity
social group consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence
Similar norms, values and expectations who interact with each other on a regular bases.
family, close friends, school or work-related peer groups=personal/emotional level
Schools, churches, corporations - less personal more goal oriented, also limited time.
A formal organization
highly structured group
formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals. i.e. college, jobs, corp., or government.
A(n) _____ is a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
a) secondary group
b) primary group
c) reference group
is a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
A social institution
set of beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will meet its basic social needs.
Five basic social institutions: Family, Religion, Education, Economy and Government or politics
Mass media, sports, science and medicine, and the military are also considered to be social institutions.
Provide insight into the structure of society.
Five basic social institutions:
Family, Religion, Education, Economy and Government or politics
Mass media, sports, science and medicine, and the military
are also considered to be social institutions.
Functionalists: Five Tasks of Social Institutions
Producing, distributing, and consuming
goods and services.
Providing and maintaining
a sense of purpose.
Types of Societies
Social scientists have identified
five types of societies based on various levels of subsistence technology
hunting and gathering
Horticultural and pastoral
Hunting and Gathering Societies
simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation.
Small, widely diverse groups
Use minimal technology
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
13,000 and 7,000 B.C.E-
shift from collecting food to producing food
This has been attributed to three factors:
depletion of the supply of large game animals as a source of food
increase in the size of the human population
dramatic weather and environmental changes that occurred by the end of the Ice Age
Trade relationships - food
New skills learned - wood making
Surplus - 1st time
Plant seeds and crops
use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply
Farming made it possible for people to spend their entire lives in the same location.
Corn, wheat, tobacco main source
Used animals for food and work
Traded for food, which brought more work and education progressed
Main focus was the production of food.
based on technology that mechanizes production.
Industrialism involves the application of scientific knowledge to the technology of production, making it possible for machines to do work previously done by people or animals.
Man power/ skilled workers
Society relied on inventions and energy sources to facilitate agriculture and industry.
is one in which
technology supports a service- and information-based economy.
Postmodern societies are characterized by an economy in which large numbers of people provide or apply information or are employed in service jobs.
Technology - mass produce though computers/robots
Services are the main focus
Processing and controlling information
Durkheim's Typology of Social Solidarity
*Social solidarity is based on social structure which is based on division of labor. Refers to how the various tasks of a society are divided up & performed.
*Mechanical Solidarity - people are united by traditions and shared values.
*Organic Solidarity - people are united by mutual dependence on one another.
is based on
social structure which is based on division of labor
. Refers to how the
various tasks of a society are divided up & performed
people are united by traditions and shared values.
form of social cohesion that arises when
people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and engage in similar types of work
>Mechanical solidarity most commonly occurs in
traditional, simple societies
such as those in which everyone herds cattle or farms. i.e.Amish society exemplifies mechanical solidarity.
people are united by mutual dependence on one another.
form of social cohesion that arises when the people in a society are
interdependent, but hold to varying values and beliefs and engage in varying types of work
most commonly occurs in industrialized, complex societies such those in large American cities like New York.
Ferdinand Tönnies (1855- 1936)
major contributor to sociological theory and field studies.
His distinction between two types of social groups -
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
would be made up of the
various family trees and how they are related to one another.
Small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences
family or a neighborhood
would be made up of clumps of trees, each has a
specialized relationship and may not be committed to the others.
Large communities in which people are strangers and feel little in common with other people.
Gesellschaft would be illustrated by a joint-stock company or a state.
Social Construction of Reality
perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
One of the main positions of symbolic interactionism is that
all objects have meaning, and that meaning is a product of communication between people.
only interact successfully when they share meanings.
Objects take on a meaning in relation to the person's plan for them
different meanings might this message take on
false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
What you believe will come true because you will subconsciously and consciously act in ways that cause the event to happen
is the study of the
that people use to
understand the situations in which they find themselves.
Goffman's Dramaturgical Analysis
Daily interactions are similar to dramatic productions.
Members of our "audience" judge our performance and are aware that we may reveal our true character.
Most of us attempt to
control the impressions we give to others.
Refers to people's
efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
Impression management is an active self-presentation of a person aiming to enhance his image in the eyes of others
The study of social interaction that
compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
________ is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people.
is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people.
Being a college professor is a(n):
none of the choices
Being a college professor is an
Being a homeless person is a(n):
none of the choices
Being a homeless person is a
Women who engage in behavior that is typically thought of as masculine often experience:
Women who engage in behavior that is typically thought of as masculine often experience
Ethnomethodology, loosely translated, means:
Ethnomethodology, loosely translated, means
_________ is a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship.
is a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship.