the process of establishing a colony. Spanish adventurers penetrated deeply into southern & western United States & Spain established the first European settlement, the fort at St. Augustine.
a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life. The Spanish converted the Indians to Catholicism
colony; a body of people who settle far from home but maintain ties with their homeland; inhabitants remain nationals of their home state. The Spanish founded the town of Santa Fe
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another. The Franciscans introduced the European practice of having men instead of women grow most of the crops.
rather than developing as a settler colony, New France instead became a vast enterprise for acquiring furs. Champlain provided them with guns to fight the expansionist-minded Five Nations of the Iroquois.
defeated by the Iroquois & were forced to migrate to the north & west. French priests sought converts among the defeated Hurons.
any member of the warlike North American Indian peoples formerly living in New York State; the Iroquois League were allies of the British during the American Revolution
Indian Wars is the name used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial or federal government & the native people of North America.
someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program
when foreigners exploited the labor of the Indian peoples
failed to attract settlers but it flourished briefly as a fur-trading enterprise
trade was the main goal; the first expedition in 1607 included only adventurers; was a joint-stock company formed to sell shares to many inventors & sought royal support
spot where traders settled after a four- month journey; out of the 120 Englishmen who embarked on the expedition, only 38 were alive nine months later due to lack of access to fresh water & the refusal to plant crops
by 1630 the colonists in Virginia had created a flourishing tobacco economy & a stable English-style local polity, controlled by landed gentlemen sitting as justices of the peace.
despite economic booms, life in these colonies were harsh, brutish, & short; the great majority of English settlers came not as free men & women but as indentured servants
Church of England
by creating a "holy commonwealth" in America, pious migrants hoped to reform the established Church of England
The proprietor of Maryland; he was given the land bordering the Chesapeake Bay & he could sell, lease, or give the land away as he pleased. He also had the authority to appoint public officials & to found churches & appoint ministers.
Baltimore wanted Maryland to be a refuge for English Catholics like himself so he made a policy instructing the governor to not allow any scandal towards the Protestants & that all Catholic activities should be done as privately as possible in this area
Toleration Act of 1649
Enacted by Baltimore; giving religious freedom to all Catholics
Someone pays for an indentures voyage to America & in return, they are bound to four or five years service to their master. After that, they become free people, able to marry & work for themselves
Statues of Africans
They were indenture, but they were enslaved for life. Some escaped bondage by cunning calculation, hard work, or conversion to Christianity. Some African Christian freemen even purchased their own slaves, indentures, or even married a white woman. Religion & personal initiative were as important as race in determining social status. This ended in 1660 when laws in Chesapeake lowered their status.
Act of Trade & Navigation (1651)
English Parliament designed this to exclude Dutch ships from entering their colonies because the Dutch paid the highest amount for tobacco & the English wanted all of the tobacco for themselves, & none for the Dutch. Then it was revised to only allow English or colonial-owned ships to enter American Ports
Governor of Virginia from 1642-1652 & then again in 1660. He gave large land grants to members of his council, who then excused their lands from taxation. He also appointed friends as local justices of the peace & county judges. To suppress dissent from the House of Burgess, he gave the legislators land grants & respectable jobs.
House of Burgesses
system of representative gov't; created by Governor Sir Thomas Dale; could make laws and levy taxes but could be vetoed by Council in England; 1st convened in Jamestown (1619)
Freeholders (aspiring tenants) wanted cheap land & insisted that the Indians be removed or killed. The wealthy wanted a high supply of white labor, & they opposed moving into Indian Territory, as did Berkeley. In 1675, a militia killed many Indians in protest. Nathaniel Bacon emerged as their leader. He was an English migrant, & had settled on a frontier estates & he had the respect of all of his neighbors. He was also on the governor's council. Bacon had gone against Berkeley's orders, so he was arrested & removed from the council.
Ordinary citizens that were part of a militia (army)
Plymouth, where the Puritans (pilgrims) settled. Very successful because instead of being founded by male adventurers, or commercial minder traders, it was founded by men, women, & children, & they were pious Protestants.
Very strict religious people, left the Church of England;
Created to combine them together into a civil body politic. This document was the first constitution adopted in the North America & used in the Puritan model of a self-governing religious congregation as the blueprint for political society
well-educated country squire; led Puritans across Atlantic in 1630; founded Mass. Bay Colony & transformed joint stock business corporation into a colonial legislature
Massachusetts Bay Colony
established by John Winthrop; made up of Puritans fleeing England; limited rights (only males church members could vote & hold office)
supported predestination (doctrine that God had decided the fates of all people before birth)
1634 was the minister of Puritan church in Salem; endorsed Pilgrims' separation of church or state in the Plymouth colony; banished from Mass. Bay. Williams & followers resettled in Rhode Island, founded the town of Providence
wife of a merchant; mother & midwife; accused Boston clergymen- argued salvation wasn't earned though good deeds. 1637 magistrates put her on trail for heresy, found guilty, exiled in Rhode Island
pastor, 1636 led his congregation (Puritans) to Connecticut River Valley & established town of Hartford. In 1639 Conn. Puritans adopted Fundamental Orders (gov't plan- established church, properly elected governor/assembly, & voting rights for most property owning men, not just church members)
supernatural forces, spirits; seen as sign of Satan
most dramatic episode of witch hunting; 1692: 175 arrested, 20 hanged; led to European Enlightenment
1675, major intellectual movement, discouraged witchcraft & promoted rational thinking
land distribution encourages self governing; land owners had vote in town meetings
Indians who were taken over/killed by Puritans; in New England area; resisted by force
Puritan view of Indians
thought God gave them the right to take Indian land; viewed Indians as savages
Metacom (Indian leader); Indians wanted to stop English advancement; Metacom made alliances with other tribes, they fought the English settlements; fighting ended in 1676; English lost 20% of towns & 5% of population, Indians lost 25% of population, surviving Indians migrated
Indians were independent, they were economically strong (good trade); Iroquois were the most successful, they won a series of wars against other tribes & this gave them control of fir trade with the French & Dutch; 1701 Iroquois made treaties with French to bring peace; Indian tribes had be diminished in size; French missionaries divided tribes into religious factions, led to more warfare