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Chapter 19: Cardiovascular System - Blood
Terms in this set (52)
a liquid connective tissue consisting of cells surrounded by a liquid matrix (plasma);
plasma = 50%
RBCs = 45%
CELLULAR COMPONENTS (FORMED ELEMENTS) OF THE BLOOD INCLUDE
PLASMA PORTION OF BLOOD CONSISTS OF
FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD - TRANSPORTATION
transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and hormones;
transports heat and waste
FUNCTION OF BLOOD - REGULATION
maintain pH, temperature, and water content of cells
FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD - PROTECTION
infections and immunity
all blood cells develop from PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS through this process called;
before birth, this process occurs in the yolk sac of the embryo (liver, spleen, and thymus)
RED BONE MARROW
3 month before birth, this becomes the primary site;
stem cells in this differentiate into each of the different types of blood cells;
the number of RBCs and platelets is controlled by negative feedback and remains steady;
WBCs numbers vary based on immune system responses
RED BLOOD CELLS - ERYTHROCYTES
contain the protein HEMOGLOBIN that is used to carry oxygen to all cells
each hemoglobin molecule contains an;
allows each molecule to bind 4 oxygen molecules
RBCs HAVE NO NECLEUS OR OTHER ORGANELLES
this allows RBCs to carry oxygen more efficiently
the shape allows them to deform without rupturing as they squeeze through narrow capillaries;
increases surface area for oxygen diffusion
production of RBCs;
begin in the red bone marrow
ERYTHROPOIETIN - EPO
is a hormone released by the kidneys in response to hypoxia (low oxygen); stimulates the differentiation of stem cells into erythrocytes
WHITE BLOOD CELLS - LEUKOCYTES
contain a nucleus and organelles, but no hemoglobin;
can be classified according to the shape of their nucleus and the staining properties of their cytoplasm;
can squeeze in and out of blood vessels to attack bacteria and debris
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
lymphocytes and monocytes
NEUTROPHILS & MONOCYTES
moderate allergic reactions and defend against parasites
migrate to damage tissues and release histamine to promote inflammation and heparin to prevent clotting
the major cells in immune reactions and they produce antibodies
WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTS
normally a cubic milliliter of blood contains 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells
occurs when WBCs are higher than 11,000 - usually after an infection
occurs when WBCs are lower than 4,000 - from a variety of conditions, including AIDS
DIFFERENTIAL WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT (DIFF)
can help pinpoint the nature of an illness, indicating whether it is caused by a virus or bacteria;
lists the percentages of the types of leukocytes in a blood sample
WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTS PERCENTAGES
neutrophils = 60
lymphocytes = 20
monocytes = 6
eosinophils = 2
basophils = .5/1
NEVER LET MY ENGINE BLOW
BLOOD PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)
fragments of megakaryocytes, which are blood cell precursors from hematopoietic stem cells;
development is triggered by THROMBOPOIETIN;
help repair damaged blood vessels by adhering to their broken edges;
normal count 130,000-360,000 per mm cubed
clear, fluid portion of the blood;
mostly water - 92% / contains a variety of substances;
plasma proteins are the most abundant substances
regulate fluid and electrolyte balance;
maintain pH balance
MOST ABUNDANT SUBSTANCE IN BLOOD PLASMA
plasma proteins: albumins, globulins, fibrinogen
help maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood
function to transport lipids and other fat-soluble vitamins as well as form a type of antibody
plays a primary role in blood coagulation
refers to the stoppage of bleeding;
1. blood vessel spasm
2. platelet plug formation
3. blood coagulation
BLOOD VESSEL SPASM
causes vessel to contract long enough to initiate the 2nd and 3rd steps
PLATELET PLUG FORMATION
involves platelets sticking to edges of blood vessel and to each other to form a net to close the hole
involves the release of several chemicals that lead to blood cells and platelets sticking together to seal the break and stop the bleeding;
once a blood clot forms, it promotes more clotting through a positive feedback system then fibroblasts invade the area to produce fibers throughout the clots
a clot that forms abnormally in a vessel
if a thrombus dislodges;
can be damaging if it gets stuck in smaller blood vessels and blocks normal blood flow
molecules that can induce an immune response;
they can originate from the body (self) or from the external environment (non-self)
proteins that are present in the plasma and are produced by immune cells in response to non-self antigens
RBCs CONTAIN SURFACE ANTIGENS THAT THE BODY RECOGNIZES AS SELF
these surface antigens are determined by genetics and are important when determining blood type
THERE ARE A TOTAL OF 24 HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS AND MORE THAN 100 DIFFERENT ANTIGENS THAT CAN BE DETECTED ON THE SURFACE OF RBCs
ABO group & RH group
A & B
based on presence (or absence) of surface antigens called
PEOPLE WITH TYPE A BLOOD HAVE RBCs WITH...
A antigens on the cell surface;
type B blood = B antigens
type AB blood = both A & B antigens
type O blood = no antigens
BLOOD PLASMA USUALLY CONTAINS ANTIBODIES THAT REACT WITH A OR B ANTIGENS IF THE TWO ARE MIXED
anti A antibodies react to A antigens;
anti B antibodies react to B antigens
2 RULES OF BLOOD TYPING
1. blood type is determined by the surface antigens, not antibodies
2. an individual will not have antibodies against their own blood type
TRANSFUSIONS & AGGLUTINATION
Blood transfusions are given to alleviate anemia, to increase blood volume, or to improve immunity.
Care must be taken in order to not transfuse the wrong blood.
An adverse reaction may occur if the wrong blood types mix.
Antibodies from one blood type bind to the surface antigens in another blood type, causing the RBC's to clump together (Agglutination).
Type O is universal donor (no antigens)
Type AB is universal recipient (no antibodies)
What would happen if a person with type A blood receives a transfusion of type B blood?
Recipient's blood contains A antigens on the red blood cells and anti-B antibodies in the plasma
Donor's blood contains B antigens on the red blood cells and anti-A antibodies in the plasma
2 things could happen:
Anti-B antibodies in recipient's plasma can bind to B antigens from the donor's red blood cells - causing agglutination.
Anti-A antibodies in donor's plasma can bind to A antigens from the recipients red blood cells - less serious reaction
Donor's anti-A antibodies become so diluted in the recipient's plasma, they do not cause significant agglutination.
RH BLOOD GROUP
RBC's may contain another surface antigen - Rh.
The Rh antigen was first found in the blood of the Rhesus monkey.
People whose RBC's have Rh antigens present are designated Rh+ (Rh positive).
Those who lack Rh antigens are Rh- (Rh negative).
Normally blood does not contain anti-Rh antibodies.
However, if a Rh- person receives a transfusion with Rh+ blood, that person will develop anti-Rh antibodies that will remain in the blood.
If a second transfusion of Rh+ blood is given later, agglutination will occur.
CLINICAL CONNECTION - HEMOLYTIC DISEASE
At birth, small amounts of fetal blood may leak into the maternal circulation.
If the baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, she will develop antibodies to the Rh factor.
If the mother becomes pregnant with a second Rh+ baby, she will transfer anti-Rh antibodies to the fetus.
These transferred anti-Rh antibodies will attach some of the fetus' RBC's causing agglutination.
An injection of anti-Rh antibodies (RhoGAM) can be given to the mother to prevent HDN.
These antibodies bind to and inactivate fetal antigens before the mother's immune system can respond.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative System
Chapter 18: The Endocrine System
Chapter 17: The Special Senses
Chapter 20: Cardiovascular System - The Heart
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