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26 terms

Biology Chapter 3 Vocab

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light microscope
a microscope that uses a beam of visible light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
electron microscope
a microscope that fouses a beam of electrons to magnify objects
magnification
the increase of an object's apparent size by using lenses or mirrors
resolution
in microscopes, the ability to form images with fine detail
scanning tunneling microscope
a microscope that uses a needle-like probe to measure differences in voltage caused by electrons that leak, or tunnel, from the surgace of the object being viewed
cell theory
the theory that states that all living things are made up of cells, that celss are the basic units of organisms, that each cell in a multicellular organism has a specific job, and that cells come only from existing cells
cell membrane
a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment
cytoplasm
the region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
cytoskeleton
the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape and division
ribosome
a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein, the site of protein synthesis
prokaryote
an organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus or cell organelles; an example is bacterium
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
flagellum
a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move
eukaryote
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, multiple chromosones, and a miotic cycle; eukaryotes include animals, plants and fungi but not bacteria or cyanobacteria
nucleus
in a eukaryotic cell, biology, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism and reproduction
organelle
one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perfrom body functions
cilium
a hairlike structure arranged in tightly packed rows that projects from the surface of some cells
phospholipid
a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
lipid bilayer
the basic structure of a biological membrane, composed of two layers of phospholipids
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranses that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
vesicle
a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
Golgi apparatus
cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
lysosome
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
mitochondrion
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
central vacuole
a large cavity or sac that is found in plants or protozoans and that contains air or partially digested food