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Nutrition and Physical Performance Test 1
Terms in this set (278)
Muscle Contraction depends on
ATP will fuel about _____seconds of maximal effort.
What three systems generate ATP?
1. Phosphagen system (ATP-PC system)
2. Anaerobic Glycolysis
3. Aerobic system
Phosphagen (ATP-PC system) is an ________ source of ATP and is ______ but has a _____ capacity.
immediate; quick; low
ATP-PC system can fuel _____ to ______ seconds of maximal effort exercise.
Anaerobic Glycolysis is an _______ carbohydrate breakdown
Why is anaerobic glycolysis incomplete?
It takes glucose only to 2 lactate molecules plus 2 net ATP
Anaerobic glycolysis is done ____
With _______ metabolism, pyruvate from glucose is converted to acetyl CoA rather than lactate
Glycolysis is ____________ oxidation
_________ and ________ can also be catabolized aerobically
Fats and Proteins
________ removed from NADH and FADH are passed along a series of carriers to produce ATP
H+ from NADH and FADH are accepted by O2 to form
Original fuel for aerobic metabolism can be
fat, carbohydrate or amino acid
Regulate (stimulate or inhibit) the rate of a metabolic reaction
ATP, ADP, Ca, product of a reaction, etc.
Carbohydrate fuel comes from:
blood glucose and muscle and liver glycogen
Fat fuel comes from:
Plasma free fatty acids (from adipose tissue lipolysis), intramuscular triglycerides, adipose triglycerides
only a small contribution to total energy production (only ~2%)
Muscle glycogen has how many calories worth of energy?
Liver glycogen has how many calories worth of energy?
Blood glucose has how many calories worth of energy?
Adipose triglyceride has how many calories worth of energy?
Muscle triglyceride has how many calories worth of energy?
Blood fatty acids and triglycerides have how many calories worth of energy?
Anaerobic systems use:
ATP, CP (ATP-CP system); blood glucose, muscle glycogen (glycolysis)
Aerobic system uses:
muscle and liver glycogen, blood glucose, fats from storage and blood and rarely amino acids
Fuel use during exercise depends on primary
intensity and duration
Fuel use during exercise depends on secondary
training status, diet and environment
Low-intensity exercise (<30% VO2 max) uses ________ as the primary fuel
"crossover" concept (30-70%) describes
the shift from fat to CHO metabolism as exercise intensity increases
High intensity exercise (>70% VO2 max) uses _____ as the primary fuel
As work intensity increases percent energy from fat
As work intensity increases percent energy from carbohydrates
High-intensity, short-term exercise for up to 15 seconds mostly uses what energy system?
Intense exercise for 15-90 seconds mostly use what energy system?
anaerobic glycolysis (aerobic gains contribution)
Exercise longer than 2-3 minutes mostly uses what energy system?
Aerobic metabolism (some contribution from anaerobic depending on how long the exercise lasts)
During prolonged exercise there is a shift from _________ metabolism toward ____ metabolism.
Amino acids are only used as a fuel when
carbohydrate becomes limiting
As exercise time increases, percent fat metabolism
As exercise time increases, percent carbohydrate metabolism
Increased use of fat at most exercise intensities
Switch to fat more rapidly when keeping exercise intensity constant
How do we measure fuel use?
measures the relationship between oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and energy expenditure
open-circuit metabolic measurement systems: 1 liter of oxygen consumed equals
5 kcals of energy expenditure
RER stands for
respiratory exchange ratio (AKA RQ or R ratio)
carbon dioxide production divided by oxygen consumption
Primary energy source at rest
If only carbohydrate is used, RMR =
If only fat is used, RMR =
Inability to maintain performance
What could be limiting factor for exercise performance?
1. Depletion/substantial reduction stored fuels
2. Reduction in blood glucose
3. CNS fatigue
4. Muscle structural damage
5. SR dysfunction
6. Inadequate oxygen provision
7. Build up of something that reduces ATP production rate...i.e. enzyme impairment
How can nutrition help avoid limiting factors in exercise performance?
1. Increase amount of fuel stored at start
2. Provide exogenous fuel during exercise
3. Push use of one fuel over another and thus reduce rate of depletion
4. Reduce build up of fatigue-inducing factors
5. Prevent deterioration in physiology and increased body temperature that goes along with dehydration
6. Maintain immune function and prevent excessive inflammation
7. Enhance recovery of fuel stores and (maybe) reduce damage after exercise
In a single effort exercise that lasts less than 10 seconds recruits what type of motor unit?
When Type II motor units are recruited, performance is limited by a person's
size and number of fibers and fiber distribution
Short-term, max effort of 15-120 seconds has energy supplied by
anaerobic glycolysis with some from ATP-PC system
Short-term, max effort of 15-120 seconds has H+ accumulate and inhibit ________ and the ability of troponin to bind to ______
Short-term, max effort of 15-120 seconds has _____ and _______ build up and ______ depletion
Phosphate and ADP; CP
What nutritional elements can improve single effort exercises less than 10 seconds?
Very little unless good nutrition adds to training adaptations to help boost muscle size and power
What nutritional elements can improve short-term, max effort of 15-120 seconds?
Creatine loading, caffeine, and buffer lactate could help nutritionally
Moderate, max effort for 3-60 minutes has 60-90% ATP from
Moderate, max effort for 3-60 minutes is limited by
the cardiovascular system
Moderate, max effort for 3-60 minutes have what type of fiber distribution?
Moderate, max effort for 3-60 minutes has ______ accumulation (lactate) with shorter events and/or at the end of longer events with final sprint.
What nutritional elements can improve moderate, max effort for 3-60 minutes ?
Avoid beginning dehydrated or depleted of glycogen. Exogenous carbohydrate & fluids maybe ergogenic in some circumstances, especially if very high intensity efforts interspersed
Long-term, max effort for 1-4 hours has almost all aerobic so
high VO2 max, economy, and type I fibers
Long-term, max effort for 1-4 hours has the ability to maintain ________ glucose
Long-term, max effort for 1-4 hours can eventually lead to
What nutritional elements can effect long-term, max effort for 1-4 hours?
Nutrition is very important for exercise this length. Nutrition is most influential for this type of exercise.
Types of research:
Descriptive, clinical trials, and meta analysis
Types of Descriptive research:
Case study, epidemiological, and cohort studies
Examine one subject in detail to provide insight
Example of a case study:
What behaviors does a world class body builder use to control body fat?
Typically cross-sectional, one time point
and typically large number of subjects
Example of an epidemiological study:
What is typical diet of Olympic level rower athletes?
Follow a specific group over time to compare to others (prospective) or look back at history of a group compared to others (retrospective)
Example of a Cohort study:
Does participation in sports as a teenager predict body fat as adult?
Compares intervention to placebo and/or control group
Example of a clinical trial:
Does caffeine increase sprint performance?
Statistically combines data from multiple, similar clinical trials when there are differences in results of clinical trials
Example of a meta analysis study?
Does creatine increase lean body mass gains?
Why do we use randomized controlled trials?
They are typically the best evidence
What study is the most expensive?
Randomized controlled trial
1. Must have been approved by Human Subject Review Board
2. Demographics, athletic experience
3. Randomization to treatment
2. Control group
3. Double/single blind
4. Cross-over vs parallel
5. Wash out period
no difference hypothesis
same testing throughout-only got one treatment
each person gets all of the treatments
Wash out period:
time needed to make sure the subject reaches their natural state before starting the next treatment in cross over
Performance test issues:
1. Lab vs field
5. Sensitivity of test measurement
6. Environmental conditions
7. Dietary control
8. Exercise control
9. Other things need to try to control/ask about?
10. How determine maximum effort? Compliance with treatment?
11. Endpoint-- time to exhaustion? Time to complete set amount of work? Amount of work done in specific time?
how much is it like the real thing
get repeated results
practice the test so the subjects understand the test
how accurate the testing measurement is
Example of Null Hypothesis: What is effect of capsaicin ingestion on sprint performance?
1. There will be no effect of capsaicin ingestion on repeated sprint performance
2. There will be no effect of capsaicin ingestion on inflammatory response to sprint exercise
A study must show _______ difference to be considered different when published
Overall goals of nutrition for athletes:
1. Maintain health
2. Optimize performance
3. Avoid injury
4. Enhance recovery
_____ of athletes believed that protein is the main source of energy; only ____ knew correct daily recommendation
________ of athletes disagreed that sports drinks are better than water for replacing fluids.
______ of athletes believed that vitamin/mineral supplements increase energy levels
Less than _____ of athletes could give recommended dietary intake for carbohydrates and fats
Nutritional short-term goals:
Delay fatigue i.e.
-Prevent depletion fuels
-Prevent build up of compounds that contribute to fatigue
Nutritional long-term goals:
1. Energy intake to meet demands
2. Replacement of expended fuels
3. Protein and other nutrients for growth & repair
4. Diet to maintain healthy immunity
Assessment in sports nutrition consists of?
Body composition, Energy expenditure, and Dietary intake
In diet assessment, if you want to change body weight you must
change energy balance, either intake, expenditure or both
Information gathered should include:
1. Basic demographics
2. Health history questionnaire
3. List of medications and supplements
4. Food record
5. Exercise log
What is a health history questionnaire?
A survey tool used to collect health-related information
What is considered health-related information?
1. Current health information
2. Family history
3. Current medications and/or supplements
3. Past medical history
4. Daily health/wellness issues
Methods of Collecting Food Intake Data include:
1. 24-hour dietary recall
2. Food frequency questionnaire
3. Food record
What is a 24 hour recall?
Recall from the last 24hrs. "starting yesterday morning what did you eat?"
What are the strengths of a 24 hour recall?
it's recent, done quickly, you are doing the writing not them (language/reading/writing not a problem
What are the weaknesses of a 24 hour recall?
Its just 24 hours. Doesn't represent their entire diet
What is a food frequency questionnaire?
Survay of how often you eat something
What are the strengths of a food frequency questionnaire?
quick, more representative of a diet
What are the weaknesses of a food frequency questionnaire?
Not all cultures have access to certain foods, need to be able to read and write
What is a diet record?
like a journal where you write down what they eat and drink for a minimum of 3 days
What are the strengths of a diet record?
Most people say it is the best representation of diet
What are the weaknesses of a diet record?
have to be able to read and write and not all patients take it seriously
Typical problems with food records
1. Forget to do it (fill out at end of day?)
2. Inaccurate portion estimation
3. Leave out foods (e.g. condiments, sauces, snacks, beverages)
4. Don't fully describe food (e.g. brand, restaurant, preparation method, contents of mixture)
5. Recorded on non-typical days
Official serving popcorn:
3 cups (160 kcal)
Official serving muffin:
2 oz (190 kcal)
Official serving soft drink:
8 oz (100 kcal)
Official serving steak:
3 oz (170 kcal)
One teaspoon is about
the size of thumb above the top joint
One cup is about
the size of fist
One ounce cheese is about
the size of thumb
3 ounce meat is about
the size deck of cards
1/2 cup is about
the size of a tennis ball
Other tips for food records:
1. Make data sheets that prompt for specific information (e.g. brand names)
2. Provide measuring tools
3. Show example of good and poor records
4. Call to remind them to do record
5. Read record immediately after receive it to see if have any questions/need clarification
How are food records analyzed?
1. Athlete fills out food record.
2. At first consultation, sports nutritionist clarifies information regarding the foods recorded.
3. Sports nutritionist analyzes data using various publications and/or computer software.
4. Quick comparison: use SuperTracker on ChooseMyPlate.gov.
What is considered energy in?
Food and beverage intake
What is considered energy out?
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Thermic Effect of Food (TEF), and Activity expenditure (AE)
Why is BMI not very useful for athletes?
it doesn't consider body composition
Normal weight BMI:
Obesity class 1 BMI:
Obesity class 2 BMI:
Obesity class 3 BMI:
What is fat mass (FM)?
All lipid in the body
What is Fat free mass (FFM)?
bone mass (BM) + protein mass (PM) + water (W)
Techniques of Densitometry:
Underwater weighing and Plethysmography
body volume is proportional to amount of weight lost from air to water
body volume is estimated by air displacement (Bod Pod)
Densitometry assumes that the density of fat tissue is
0.9 gm/ cm cubed
Densitometry assumes that the density of lean tissue is
1.1 gm/cm cubed
When is the density of fat tissue and lean tissue effected?
1. dehydration (e.g. wrestlers, dieters)
2. high bone mass and density (e.g. resistance trainers, African American)
3. low bone mass and density (e.g. older indiv., children)
Anthropometry and Bioelectric Impedance
Anthropometry is also called?
1. Assumes these sites are representative of overall body fat
2. Make sure use appropriate equation
3. Make sure use appropriate equipment
4. Trained technician
Tips on skinfold measurement:
1. Use right side of the body
2. Locate skinfold site
3. Put middle finger and thumb about 2 inches apart around site
4. Pick up site firmly (be sure no muscle)
5. Keep holding site as put calipers on to read
6. Wait 1-2 s (be consistent) to read
Triceps, Subscapular, Thigh, and Abdomen,
What skinfold equation was considered the best for athletes and what sites did it measure?
The three skinfold equation with measurements taken at the abdomen, thigh and triceps
1. Depends on body length and ability to conduct electrical current
2. Conductance related to fat (slows current) and water (speeds current)
3. Assume FFM has constant % water
4. Get fat mass by difference
5. SO-- this method is very influenced by changes in body water
Bioelectric impedance conditions: Normal hydration
1. avoid heavy exercise before
2. have drink water ~ 2 h before and void before measurement
3. no food intake < 2 h before
Bioelectric impedance conditions: Normal skin temperature and electrolytes (sweat):
Avoid heavy exercise or hot environement
Even the best methods can only get within about _____ of true body fat due to _______
2.5-3.5%; Inherent error
Measurements are made worse if poor technique or didn't have appropriate conditions/subject cooperation. This is what kind of error?
Minimum body fat percentage for men:
Minimum body fat percentage for males in high school:
Minimum body fat percentage for women:
Average body fat percentage for college aged males:
Average body fat percentage for college aged females:
Obese body fat percentage in males:
Obese body fat percentage in females:
Why is it Advantageous for most athletes to be on lower end of that range of body fat?
Lower energy cost to move and
Better heat dissipation
Most male athletes are what percent body fat?
Most female athletes are what percent body fat?
Research suggests too many football players have
BW goal =
current lean body mass (kg or lbs) divided by percent lean body mass desired (as fraction)
What is energy?
Ability to do work.
Typically express as kcal or kJ
Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) consists of:
1. Resting metabolism 2. Thermic effect of food
3. Physical activity
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
1. Energy required for the digestion and absorption & assimilation of food
2. Estimated to be ~5-10% of total caloric intake for the day
3. Proteins increase TEF more than carbohydrates or fat
What is difference between BMR (basal MR) & RMR (resting MR) ?
They are very close to the same; Both are ~70% of total energy expenditure for 'average' person but may be much smaller percentage (?50%) for an active athlete
Basal metabolic rate (BMR):
Minimal amount of energy needed to sustain life
How is BMR measured?
Measured under defined laboratory conditions (Fasting 12 hours, supine and still, no exercise for 24 hours)
What is BMR used for?
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared to BMR?
Close but a little higher than BMR
How is RMR measured compared to BMR?
Measured under less strict conditions
How can we determine the components of energy expenditure? Estimation:
Prediction equations and tables
How can we determine the components of energy expenditure? Measurements:
1. Direct calorimetry
2. Indirect calorimetry
3. Doubly labeled water (DLW)
Conversion from pounds to kilograms:
lbs / 2.2 = 1 kg
Conversion of height in inches to cm
inches X 2.54 = cm
500 + 22(FFM in kg)
Measure metabolic rate
Direct and indirect calorimetry
Direct calorimetry =
Indirect calorimetry =
Measurement of Energy Expenditure- people: Direct:
-In a room containing sensitive temperature sensors that detect heat produced
-Use a water filled suit. Change in temperature of the water can estimate heat production.
Example Simplified Portable System-
Measurement of Energy in Food- direct calorimetry
Bomb calorimeter measures temperature change when food is burned
The most changable component of Total EE is
Could measure exercise energy expenditure- Direct: Whole-room Calorimeter
Measures temperature change by measuring heat associated with energy expenditure
(Used for research)
More commonly measure activity energy expenditure with
Newer technologies to estimate activity EE- wearable devices:
Body media, fit bit, Value-give feedback but may not be highly accurate
Body media-multiple sensors include:
Heat flux sensor,
Skin temp. sensor, and Galvanic skin response sensor
Limitations of body media devices?
User error and device error
What is an example of user error?
Forgetting to wear the device
Types of device error?
-If just pedometer, can't determine cost associated with going up grade
(Accelerometers better at this)
-Can't determine energy cost of some activities (e.g. weight lifting, stationary cycling, swimming)
Ways to estimate activity energy expenditure?
24 hr physical activity log
Using the exercise/activity log used in nutritional consultation:
1. Documents training activity
2. Allows estimation of energy expenditure and thus energy needs
3. Helps to plan timing of food
(Time for food preparation and
When to eat meals or snack)
Energy expenditure of sedentary females
Energy expenditure of sedentary males
Energy expenditure of lightly active females:
Energy expenditure of lightly active males:
Energy expenditure of moderately active females:
Energy expenditure of moderately active males:
Energy expenditure of heavily active females:
Energy expenditure of heavily active males:
Energy expenditure of exceptionally active females:
Energy expenditure of exceptionally active males:
In general, expect higher energy intake for which gender?
Males have higher resting metabolic rate and need more calories than females
In general, expect higher energy intake for what type of activity and activity pattern?
Activities with longer deration and high intensity- swimming, soccer, cross country
How do athletes get this much energy in?
Large portions, and Supplements during exercise
What explains the low intake reported in some females?
1. May increase consumption/binge at other times when not keeping record
2. Inaccurate records? What they ate- portion sizes
3. May actually have this low energy requirement since have become more efficient (i.e. need less kcal in to keep their body going)
Low carb diet several days + hi carb increases R & increased endurance
1930's Harvard fatigue lab
Exhausted dogs given carb could exercise longer
1960's development of muscle biopsy technique to look at
changes in muscle glycogen
1980's beginning of use of isotopic tracers to
examine use of carbohydrate oxidation rates
2000's look at molecular level
Substantial reduction of muscle/liver glycogen and/or hypoglycemia is related to
Use of glycogen is very related to
exercise intensity & duration
Functions of CHOs:
1. Energy source for all cells of body
2. Primary energy source for the cells of the Central Nervous System & red blood cells
Carbohydrates are made up of?
Carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen
CHOs are formed by plants via
CHOs are stored in plants as
CHOs are stored in human body as
Examples of Monosaccharides:
glucose, galactose, and fructose
Examples of dissaccharides:
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Examples of polysaccharides:
Starch and cellulose
monocccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
simple carbohydrates and
Glucose absorption is
Fructose uses different carrier and number of carriers are
Many sports beverages use combination of different carbohydrates and never too much
What does overload of fructose cause?
Blood glucose is Maintained at narrow limits (homeostasis):
1. Normal 4.0-4.5 mmol/L (X 18 to convert to mg%....72-81 mg%)
2. Hyperglycemia toxic
3. Hypoglycemia can be fatal
Blood glucose is Impacted by
food intake, hormones, etc
Blood glucose Concentration is balance of
entrance and exit
Why hyperglycemia sometimes seen after short, intense exercise?
Breaking down glycogen in liver to release glucose
Symptoms of hypoglycemia:
fatigue, nausea, dizziness
In what conditions would hypoglycemia occur?
Fasting or prolonged endurance exercise
Glucose response from ingestion of single food at set total carbohydrate content (50 g) for comparison among foods
1. Glucose response to food or meal that may vary from the standard carbohydrate amount
2. Depends on GI and on total carbohydrate ingested
3. GI X carbohydrate g/serving
What influences Glycemic Index of foods?
1. Form of carbohydrate (e.g.fructose v glucose)
3. Fat & protein co-ingestion
4. Fiber content
Foods with high glycemic index:
2. White Bread
4. White rice
Foods with low glycemic index:
3. Dairy products
4. Most fruits
Glycemic load Before exercise (& daily diet)-
low to moderate glycemic load/index to avoid very low or very high blood glucose just before exercise
Glycemic load During Exercise-
high glycemic load/index to get glucose into blood quickly so maintain blood glucose as it is used by cells
Glycemic load After exercise-
high glycemic load/index to quickly bring blood glucose up and get into muscle/liver to regenerate glycogen
Fate of blood glucose:
1. Can be taken up by organs or muscle to be used or stored as glycogen
2. Can be taken up by liver for storage as glycogen or conversion to fat
Blood glucose uptake at muscle:
1. Exercise has "insulin-like" effect to increase blood glucose uptake into cell
2. Stimulates movement of glucose transporters to cell membrane
Muscle glycogen metabolism important source of carbohydrate for
Muscle glycogen metabolism Can not supply glucose to blood because
it has to do with enzymes
Muscle glycogen metabolism Rate of use very intensity dependent:
1. If anaerobic ATP generation, glycogen is preferred substrate
2. Epinephrine stimulates use
3. Will be used with aerobic metabolism as well but will be combined with fat use so not as rapid drop
What type of activities would drastically reduce muscle glycogen?
Moderate intensity for a long time
1. Primary role is to provide glucose to blood stream if becomes reduced
2. Can be substantially reduced after overnight fast (to <20 g)
3. Can be reduced by exercise if drain on blood glucose is substantial
4. Can produce new glucose (gluconeogenesis) but is costly and slow
Overall: Importance of CHO in Exercise?
1. Serves as an energy source both at rest and during exercise.
(Duration & intensity dependent
'Spared' in endurance trained state)
2. Stores are limited.
Shift From CHO to Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise-duration:
At around 20 minutes
Carb intake for endurance athletes:
1. Typically a high total carbohydrate use during the event and/or workout
2. Can be moderate % source of ATP from carbohydrate/minute but can be continued a long time
Low intensity/skill or sprint g/kg carb recommendation
Moderate intensity & duration ~1 h g/kg carb recommendation:
Moderate intensity & longer duration or intermittent sports ~1-3 h g/kg carb recommendation:
Moderate intensity & extremely long duration 3+ h g/kg carb recommendation:
When Consider Carbohydrate Loading?
Most useful for events over 60 minutes at moderate intensity (65-85% VO2max) or shorter events with many repeated intervals of high intensity
1. Eat 1-4 h < event
2. *1-4 g/kg carbohydrate
(~1g for each hour away (e.g. 4 g/kg for 4 h before event))
3. ~5-7 ml/kg fluid
4. Some protein to slow gastric emptying, reduce hunger, and moderate blood glucose response
5. Low fiber
6. Experiment during training
Example pre-event meals:
1. Cereal + milk & fruit
2. Potato + chili
3. Sandwich with lean turkey or ham
4. Low fat crackers + peanut butter
5. All would include substantial beverage to boost fluid intake
5-7 ml/kg or more
Later research has not clearly shown advantage to low GI meal but
no disadvantage so I sometimes have athletes try moderate GI meals < exercise
Most studies find a beneficial effect of carbohydrate consumption during exercise on performance of:
1. Prolonged exercise of greater than ~60 min
2. Moderately intense @ ~65-85% VO2max or with repeated high intensity efforts
3. less consistent for shorter events or lower intensity
What form and how much carbohydrate during exercise?
1. Beverages beneficial since also get fluid:
(Consume a less than 10% carbohydrate solution every 15-20 minutes to supply regular source of carbohydrate
Too concentrated slows stomach emptying)
2. Solid foods, as tolerated
3. Plan the pattern to result in ~30-60 g/hr
(For ultraendurance, well-trained might go as high as 90 g/hg)
Maximum rate of glucose oxidation is
~ 1 g/min.
Many athletes get much of their carbohydrate before, during and after exercise using
How important is it to have carbohydrate during recovery?
1. Accelerates replacement of liver and muscle glycogen
Post exercise glycogen resynthesis:
1. Can take up to 24 hours if severe depletion
2. Carbohydrate consumption during the first few hours post exercise is important for fastest glycogen synthesis
3. High glycemic index carbohydrates replace glycogen more rapidly than lower GI
4. Solid or liquid forms acceptable
How much should an athlete eat after competition?
1. 1.0-1.2 g CHO/kg
(Every hour for 4 hours post-exercise)
2. Small, frequent meals
3. Choose higher glycemic foods
Resistance exercise performance does not appear to be influenced by _______ carbohydrate intake
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