Physiology Exam #2 Chapter 20, 21, 19, 22 and 23

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What are the layers of the pericardium?
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What is the systemic circuit?The systemic circuit is on the "L" side and it takes freshly oxygenated pulmonary blood and pumps it systemically (to the body).What is coronary circulation?Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (the myocardium). The vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium are known as coronary arteries. The vessels that remove the deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle are known as coronary veins.What are coronary arteries?Coronary arteries supply blood to the myocardium.What are cardiac veins?The cardiac veins returns deoxygenated blood (containing metabolic waste products) from the myocardium to the right atriumWhat is the coronary sinus?The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).Definitions: Chapter 20 What is anastomoses?Anastomoses are points where 2 or more arteries supplying the same region join.What is myocardial ischemia?Myocardial ischemia is a partial obstuction of blood flow in the coronary arteries.What is angina pectoris?Tightness in the chest usually accompanying myocardial ischemia. *Often referred to neck, chin, or down left arm.What is mycardial infarction?Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is the medical term for an event commonly known as a heart attack. Heart tissues dies off due to lack of blood supply.What is atherosclerosis?Atherosclerosis (or arteriosclerotic vascular disease) is a condition where the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to an excessive build up of plaque around the artery wall.What is arteriosclerosis?Arteriosclerosis is defined as stiffening or hardening or the arterial walls. Arteries are blood vessels that carry healthy, oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the various peripheral organs of the body.What is angioplasty?Angioplasty is the technique of mechanically widening narrowed or obstructed arteries, the latter typically being a result of atherosclerosis. An empty and collapsed balloon on a guide wire, known as a balloon catheter, is passed into the narrowed locations and then inflated to a fixed size using water pressures some 75 to 500 times normal blood pressure (6 to 20 atmospheres).What is angina pectoris?Angina pectoris - commonly known as angina - is chest pain due to ischemia of the heart muscle, generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries.What is chordae tendineae?Are string like structures that attach the AV valves to the heartWhat is cardiac conduction?Group of specialized, highly exciteable cells that give the heart its rhythmicityWhat are the parts of the cardiac conduction system? (There are 5.)*SA Node *AV Node *AV Bundle (Bundle of His) * The AP propogates along the "R" and "L" bundle branches down the interventricular septum towards the apex. *Purkinje FibersWhat is autorhythmicity and importance of gap junctions?The heart muscle is autorhythmic, and it does not rely on the Central Nervous system to sustain a lifelong heartbeart. Gap junctions: 1. Act as a pacemaker 2. Form the cardiac conduction system.What are the causes of heart sounds?Heart sounds are caused by valve closure produces turbulence in the blood that can be detected. 1. The AV valve closes and causes a (lubb) sound 2. the second heart sound is a (dupp) and is produced when the SI valves close.What is EDV (End-diastolic volume)?EDV is the final amount in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole.What is CO (cardiac output)?CO is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle each minute.What is ESV (End-systolic volume)?ESV is End-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction, or systole, and the beginning of filling, or diastole.What is SV (stroke-volume)?Stroke volume is the volume ejected per beat from each ventricle.What is cardiac reserve?1. the work that the heart is able to perform beyond that required under the ordinary circumstances of daily life, depending upon the state of the myocardium and the degree to which, within physiologic limits, the cardiac muscle fibers can be stretched by the volume of blood reaching the heart during diastole. It is the difference between the CO at rest and the maximum CO the heart can generate. (Average cardiac reserve is 4-5 times resting value.)What is ejection fraction?The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well your heart is pumping. A measurement of how much blood the left ventricle pumps out with each contracting out blood and in diagnosing and tracking heart failure.What is systole?systole, period of contraction of the ventricles of the heart that occurs between the first and second heart sounds. Systole causes the ejection of blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk.What is diastole?Diastole defined is when the heart is in the relaxed state of the heart and dilatation. This is when the ventricles in the heart are filling with blood. In a blood pressure test the diastolic pressure is the second number of the blood pressure results.Chapter #19 What is the composition and characteristics of blood (%, plasma, proteins, pH and temp.)The composition of blood is 45% formed elements, 55% plasma, temp. 38° C and pH is (7.35-7.45).What are the functions of the blood?Functions of blood are: Transportation- Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones and heat. Regulation- pH, body temperature, water balance. Protection from blood loss (clotting), infection (WBC's and some proteins.)What are plasma proteins?Plasma proteins: Albumin, Globulins, and fibrinogens important in blood clotting.What is hemopoiesis?Hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis) is the process by which the formed elements of blood is developed. Occurs in the red bone marrow between trabeculae of spongy bone.RBC destruction120 daysAll types of anemias (matching question) 71. Iron-deficiency anemia- inadequate absorption of iron 2. Megaloblastic- caused by inadequate intake of vitamin b12 3. Pernicious anemia-inability of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor (needed for b12 absorption) 4. Hemorrhagic anemia-caused by excessive loss of RBC's through bleeding. 5. Hemolytic anemia- From increased RBC destruction 6. Thalassemia- A hereditary hemolytic anmeia with deficient synthesis of hemoglobin 7. Aplastic anemia- Caused by destruction of red bone marrow.Characteristics of erythrocytes?Characteristics: RBC's are bi-concave discs with no nucleus or ribosomes, carry oxygen or hemoglobin, 120 days lifespan, lack mitochondria, generate ATP automatically.What is thrombosis?Thrombosis is the clottting in an unbroken blood vessel (usually a vein.) Thrombis- is the clot itself.What is an embolus?An embolus is a blood clot, air bubble transported by the blood stream.What is erythopoiesis?Erythopoiesis is the production of RBC's usually occurs in the red bone marrow.What are hemocytoblast cells?Hemocytoblasts produce myeloid stem cells. Hemocytobasts are forrmed elements that develop from a pleuripotent stem cell.What are progenitor cells?Progenitor cells are produced form lymphoid stem cells.What is hemoglobin?Hemoglobin is a protein molecule adapted to carry O₂ and (CO₂) as well .What is (EPO)?(EPO) is a hormone called erythropoietin and it is produced by the kidneys and liver. EPO is stimulated by low levels of oxygen, hypoxia.