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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Middle Ages Test
Terms in this set (52)
Bishops selling positions in the Church
What were the problems in the Church?
Priests married and had families, simony, kings would appoint church bishops but the church thought they should appoint
New style of architecture that evolved throughout medieval Europe
To gain control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem)
Pope Urban II
Pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
How did Pope Urban II convince soldiers to fight for him?
He said if you died in the Crusade you are assured a place in heaven
Jerusalem was taken by the Christian force
The Crusade that failed in its goal of recapturing the Crusader state
To recapture Jerusalem led by Richard the Lion-Hearted and 2 other kings
Jerusalem had fallen to this Muslim leader
To what extent did king Charlemagne of Franks influence Europe?
His goal was to spread Christianity, forced Saxon to convert.
To what extent did Charles Martel influence Europe?
Leader of God's people, fought against those who didn't believe in Christianity.
How did feudalism become predominant political system in Europe?
How was society structured under feudalism?
Everyone but the king had a ruling lord above them, they owed loyalty and military protection to their lord in exchange for land and protection.
Failed to capture Jerusalem, religious spirit of the First Crusade faded
30,000 children set out to conquer Jerusalem, many died and starved
A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain
Court held by the church to suppress heresy, in order to unify country under Christianity (Isabella & Ferdinand)
People whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the church
What were the good effects of the Crusades?
Women were managing estates, operating shops, trade benefited Christians & Muslims
What were the bad effects of the Crusades?
Weakened the power of the pope, intolerance and prejudice for Muslims, Jews in Europe increased persecution
One-third of the land left unplanted each year to increase fertility, food production increased which led to the population increasing in Europe
An organization of people in the same craft or trade
Availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business
Letters of credit
A letter issued by a bank allowing bearer to withdraw money from bank
What were the effects of the commercial revolution?
Population of 30-42 million, excitement drew many people in, people dumped waste on street and didn't bath, lacked fresh air
Merchant class town dwellers
Everyday language of their homeland brought literature to many people.
Scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument
Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities
Group of scholars meeting wherever they could
Alfred the Great turned back these village invaders
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who invaded England and claimed the English crown
What was king William's goals?
To hold and add to their French lands, and to strengthen their own power over nobles and church
Henry II of England
English king who set up a system of common law, married Eleanor of Aquitaine
Unified body of law
Guaranteed certain basic political rights, approved by king John
Needed to raise taxes for a war against French
Legislative group, weakened lords and provided a check on royal power
Pope Boniface VIII and Philip IV
Pope enforced papal authority over kings, Philip then asserted authority over bishops, Pope responded that all kings must obey Pope, Philip put Pope in jail and now a Pope can never force monarchs to obey them
Division in the Church created by having popes in both Avignon and Rome, weakened papacy
The office or authority of the pope
John Wycliffe and Jan Hus
He preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the head of the Church
A deadly contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread by fleas and rats; also called the Black Death
Effects of the Plague
Killed 1/3 of European population, trade decreased and prices increased, peasant revolts, Jews were falsely blamed for plague then massacred, Church lost prestige because their prayers didn't help stop the plague
Hundred Years' War
A series of battles fought between France and England
A large bow used for firing arrows, called the "machine gun" of the Middle Ages
Joan of Arc
English peasant who led the French army to victory at Orleans
Effects of the Hundred Years' War
Nationalism arose in England and France, people viewed king as leader not feudal lord, power and prestige of French monarch increased, English suffered internal turmoil war of roses: 2 nobles fought for throne
What ended the Middle Ages?
Hundred Years' War
What ended the Age of Faith?
The Great Schism, and lots of wealth in the Church and the faulty prayers for the plague
What ended the Age of Chivalry?
The battlefield of Crecy, Poiters, and Agincourt
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