Spheres of Influence in Muslim Lands
Terms in this set (24)
When Egypt made cotton its biggest crop, what major risk did it take?
depending on a crop whose price might go down
Nationalist movements in the Ottoman Empire helped Europe by
weakening the empire as a whole.
Muhammad Ali tried to westernize Egypt by
building a large army and expanding Egyptian territory.
How did buying Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal benefit Britain?
It gave Britain partial control of the canal and enabled trade with Asia.
The British takeover of Egypt was an example of
The Suez Canal connected the Mediterranean Sea and
the Red Sea.
Russia and Britain competed for Persia because it offered
land and resources.
In its weakened state, the Ottoman Empire was known as the "____ Man of Europe."
When Russia and Britain established spheres of influence in Persia, they gained
joint control of Persia's economy.
As a result of the Crimean War, the Ottoman Empire became more reliant on Britain and France because
Britain and France helped the empire win the war.
Which correctly lists all of the belligerents in the Crimean War?
Russia, the Ottoman Empire, France, and Britain
Which most likely was Persia's most valuable asset?
its oil supply
Nationalist movements in the Ottoman Empire resulted in
independence or self-rule for many territories.
Why did European powers compete for control of Muslim states?
It was important for the Europeans to control trade routes that were actually controlled by various Muslim states.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire had acted as almost an impenetrable wall against European intrusion or European influence going into the Middle East.
The Ottoman Empire was weakened by various nationalist movements for Independence.
• Egypt won self-rule.
• Arabia won its independence from Ottoman rule.
• Serbians won the ability for self-rule.
• Greece won its independence.
The Europeans saw the weakening of the Ottoman Empire as an opportunity to expand its influence into the Middle East.
1. They begin to annex or take over various Ottoman land.
2. There is the expansion that led to the Crimean War between the Ottomans and the Russians. Crimea is a small area in the North part of the Black Sea and Russia is North of it.
Causes of the Crimean War:
• Russian expansionism: "Expansionism" was the aggressive policy of invading outside areas to make a territory larger.
• Competition for influence in the region: Britain and France allied themselves with the Ottoman Empire because they did not want to see Russia get larger and become more powerful.
• "Belligerents" are the people involved with aggressive behavior.
Effects of the Crimean War:
• Russia was defeated in the Crimea War.
• The war established a foundation for future struggles in the region of trying to gain control of this Crimea territory.
• Russia also realized that it needed to improve its military because it lost militarily to Britain and France.
• Ottoman Empire was able to survive. But it remained very, very weak. And it was so weak that it was actually referred to as the "Sick Man of Europe." It completely depended on Britain and France for many of its day-to-day operations.
• Europe became more deeply involved in the Middle East because they thought by
having a greater control in the Ottoman Empire (Muslim Territory) they would have access to commercial trade. It would bring more power. It would bring greater global influence.
Political Cartoons: Whenever you see a political cartoon, a couple questions you should be asking yourself.
• When was the cartoon published?
This cartoon was published in a magazine called Punch magazine in 1896.
• What do the figures represent? Well, this person right here is the sultan, or the Muslim leader, of the Ottoman Empire during this time period.
• What clues can be found in the text? It says, "Reorganization of the Ottoman Empire. The cost, 5 million pounds." "Pounds" is the type of money, or the name of the money, in Great Britain. So it's saying that the Ottoman Empire is essentially for sale for 5 million pounds. Who is directing this purchase? If you look closely, you can see Russia, France, England. The message of the cartoon is that this sultan, the Ottomans are not in control of their own territory. The Europeans are. And at any time, the Europeans can come in and take the territory away.
Egypt: and how to control routes to India.
• Built a Western style army
• Expanded Egyptian territory.
• Built a more autonomous Egypt that was not under the control of either the west, or under the control of the Ottomans.
• Instituted economic and social reforms.
• He introduced cotton (most importantly) to Egypt.
Hoped that cotton would become a cash crop
Depended a lot on cotton to bring Egypt great deals of money.
• Completed in 1869.
• Ali and his successors, made a deal with France to build the Suez Canal.
• Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, and the Red Sea gradually leads out to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
• Decreased the time and the miles it took to get from Egypt all the way to India
• The canal shortened the travel time for imperial powers such as Britain (almost in half), which increased the amount of trade, and increased the power of these colonial powers.
The British, employing Economic Imperialism, gradually takeover of Egypt and the Suez Canal because of the following reasons:
• Rising debt in Egypt. Egypt only produced one major good- cotton. Cotton prices fell, and the high government spending put Egypt in a great deal of debt, so they needed to be bailed out.
• Great Britain bought the majority of the shares in the canal, and they helped buy Egypt out of its rising debt.
• Great Britain protected the Egyptian government from riots that were going on. So the British sent troops in and occupied Egypt.
• Then Egypt became a British protectorate, where you see the dominant power of Great Britain in overall control of a less dominant power in Egypt.
Persia: (Most of modern day Iran) There was a competition between Great Britain and Russia for control of three natural resources.
• Russia was located North of Persia.
• Great Britain had lands that it controlled in India. So by controlling the area of Persia, it would give them another way to get to their lands in India.
1. Land for growing cotton and tobacco.
2. Oil reserves.
3. Desirable location between the Middle East and Central Asia.
Spheres of Influence in Persia:
in 1907 Russia & Great Britain signed a treaty that gave each country spheres of influence in Persia. Persia also signed economic treaties with both nations, and example of economic imperialism giving them control over Persia's Economy, allowing them to control the wealth and increase their power, and ultimately increase their control over the Middle Eastern and Muslim states.
Persian-Russian Zone (Northern part of Persia)
Persian-British Zone (Southern part of Persia)
• British would force the Persian farmers to grow tobacco, as well as cotton.