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SPC2608 Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (149)
Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience
A hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress
Controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation
Ways to deal with nervousness/stage fright
1. Acquire speaking experience
2. Prepare beforehand
3. Think positively
4. Use the power of visualization
5. Know that most nervousness is not visible
6. Don't expect perfection
Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation
The stages and parts of the speech communication process
speech communication begins with a speaker
whatever a speaker communicates to someone else
the means by which a message is communicated
the person who receives the communicated message
The messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker
Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners
Ethnocentrism is the belief that our own group or culture—whatever it may
be—is superior to all other groups or cultures.
how to deal with ethnocentrism
Show respect for the cultures of the people you address.
avoid words or phrases that may cause misunderstanding
Be alert to feedback
listen attentively no matter what the speaker's cultural background
The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
Guidelines for ethical speechmaking
1. Make sure your goals are ethically sound
2.Be fully prepared for each speech
3. Be honest in what you say
4. Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language
5. Put ethical principles into practice
sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines
1. listen courteously and attentively
2. to avoid prejudging the speaker
3. to maintain the free and open expression of ideas
The use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups
Types of plagiarism
to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words
the vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain
Paying close attention to, and making sense, what we hear
Types of listening
Ways to be a good listener
1. Take listening seriously
2. Be an active listener
3. Resist distraction
4. Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery
5. Suspend judgement
6. Focus your listening (i.e main point, evidence, technique)
7. Develop note-taking skills
listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
A speech early in the term designed to gets students speaking in front of the class as soon as possible
Methods of speech organiazation
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
Extemporaneous methods of delievery
1. plan what you wanna say
2. organizing the material clearly
3. practice thoroughly
4. speak extemporaneously
A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
Motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech
Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
Five elements of speech delivery
1. Starting your speech (i.e establishing rapport w/audience)
2. Eye contact
5. Dealing with Nerves
Stating a purpose
stating the broad goal of a speech it can be either specific or general
a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas
Methods of brainstorming
General v. Specific Purpose
General-- broad goal of a speech
Specific purpose--A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech
A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech
Guidelines for effective central ideas
1. should be expressed in a full sentence
2. should not be in the form of a question
3. should avoid figurative language
4. should not be vague or overly general
keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being
Demographic audience analysis
Audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, and racial, ethnic, or cultural background
creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike
Situational audience analysis
Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion
A frame of mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution, etc.
Types of Questionnaires
A work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers
Types of Database
Newspaper and periodical databases
Newspaper and periodical databases
A research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of magazines, journals, and newspapers
A database that catalogues articles from scholarly journals
a quotation from or reference to a book, paper, or author, especially in a scholarly work.
Evaluating internet resources
Take plenty of notes
Record notes in a consistent format
make a separate entry for each note
distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas
a specific care used to illustrate or represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like
Types of examples
a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
quotations or paraphrases used to support a point. Can be expert or peer.
quoting out of context
testimony that is presented word for word
quoting out of context
quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it
Tips for using examples
to clarify your ideas
to reinforce your ideas
to personalize your ideas
make them vivid and richly textured
practice delivery to enhance your extended examples
Reliability of statistics
As a speaker, you must be aware of possible bias in the use of numbers.
Since statistics can be interpreted so many ways and put to so many uses,
you should seek figures gathered by objective, nonpartisan sources.
Tips for using testimony in speech
quote or paraphrase accurately
use from qualified sources
use from unbiased sources
identify the people you quote or paraphrase
You have to identify your sources orally, as you
are speaking.The key is to tell your audience enough that they will know where you got your information and why they should accept it as qualified and credible.
The major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points
Types of order
Tmethod of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern
A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
A method of speech in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them
A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finshed one thought and is moving on to another
A statemement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know the speaker is going to discuss next
A statement in the body of the speech that summaries the speaker's preceding point or points
A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas
A question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic
Credibility is mostly a matter of being qualified to speak on a given
topic—and of being perceived as qualified by your listeners. Your credibility need not be based on firsthand knowledge and experience.
It can come from reading, from classes, from interviews, from friends
The audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind
A statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body
Objectives to speech introduction
Get the attention and interest of your audience.
Reveal the topic of your speech.
Establish your credibility and goodwill.
Preview the body of the speech.
Methods of attention-getting introductions
Relate the topic to the audience
State the importance of your topic
Startle the audience
Arouse the curiosity of the audience
Question the audience
Begin with a quotation
Tell a story
Tips for introductions
1. Keep the introduction relatively brief.
2. Be on the lookout for possible introductory materials as you do your
3. Be creative in devising your introduction.
4. Don't worry about the exact wording of your introduction until you
have finished preparing the body of the speech.
5. Work out your introduction in detail.
6. When you present the speech, don't start talking too soon.
Functions of a conclusion
To let the audience know you are ending the speech.
To reinforce the audience's understanding of, or commitment to, the central
Ways to signal the end of the speech
A conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
A conclusion that generates emotional appeal by facing step by step to a dramatic final statement
Reinforcing central idea
Summarize your speech
End with a quotation
Make a dramatic statement
Refer to introduction
Tips for conclusions
1. As with the introduction, keep an eye out for possible concluding
materials as you research and develop the speech.
2. Conclude with a bang, not a whimper.
3. Don't be long-winded.
4. Don't leave anything in your conclusion to chance.
The pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas
A list of all the sources used in preparing a speech
A brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech
Directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliever key parts of the speech
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
A book of synonyms
Words that refer to tangibile objects
Words that refer to ideas or concepts
Discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
The use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as", between things that are essentially different yet have something in common
A trite or overused expression
An implicit comparison, not
introduced with the word "like" or
"as," between two things that are
essentially different yet have
something in common.
The pattern of sound in a speech
created by the choice and
arrangement of words.
The similar arrangement of a pair or
series of related words, phrases, or
Reiteration of the same word or set
of words at the beginning or end of
successive clauses or sentences.
Repetition of the initial consonant
sound of close or adjoining words.
The juxtaposition of contrasting
ideas, usually in parallel structure
Language that does not stereotype,
demean, or patronize people on the
basis of gender, race, religion,
disability, sexual orientation, or
The use of "he" to refer to both
women and men.
Language and our reality
It does not simply describe the
world as it is. Instead, language helps create
our sense of reality by giving meaning to events. The
words we use to label an event determine to a great
extent how we respond to it.
Criteria for effective language
use familiar words
choose concrete words
Ways to use vivid language
appropriateness to the occasion
appropriateness to the audience
appropriateness to the topic
appropriateness to the speaker
Communication based on a person's
use of voice and body, rather than on
the use of words.
The loudness or softness of the
The highness or lowness of the
Changes in the pitch or tone of a
A constant pitch or tone of voice.
The speed at which a person speaks.
A momentary break in the vocal
delivery of a speech.
Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch,
and volume that give the voice
variety and expressiveness.
The accepted standard of sound
and rhythm for words in a given
The physical production of particular
A variety of a language distinguished
by variations of accent, grammar, or
The study of body motions as a
systematic mode of communication.
Elements of good delivery
Good delivery does not call attention to itself. It conveys the speaker's
ideas clearly, interestingly, and without distracting the audience. Most audiences
prefer delivery that combines a certain degree of formality with the best
attributes of good conversation—directness, spontaneity, animation, vocal
and facial expressiveness, and a lively sense of communication.
Methods of speech delivery
Reading from a manuscript
Reciting from memory
Preparing Q &A sessions
Formulate answers to possible questions
practice the delivery of your answers
A complete set of type of the same
Advantages of visual aids
People find a speaker's message more interesting, grasp it more easily, and
retain it longer when it is presented visually as well as verbally.
visual aids can enhance almost every aspect of a speech.
An average speaker who uses visual aids will come across as better prepared, more
credible, and more professional than a dynamic speaker who does not use
Visual aids can even help you combat stage fright. They heighten
audience interest, shift attention away from the speaker, and give the speaker
greater confidence in the presentation as a whole
Types of visual aids
Considerations when using visual aids
Guidelines for using visual aids
Informative speeches: guidelines
don't overestimate what the audience knows
relate the subject directly to the audience
don't be too technical
A technical speech is a speech given by an expert to an audience of experts.
One way to avoid abstractions is through description. When we think of description, we usually think of external events such as the explosion described
by Conrad. But description is also used to communicate internal feelings.
Importance of creativity
You need to be creative in thinking about ways to achieve your objectives.
A good informative speech is not an oral encyclopedia article. Like any
other kind of speech, it requires a healthy dose of creativity
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