204 terms

Biology

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Diffusion
The passive movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration. This happens along a concentration gradient
Osmosis
A passive movement of water molecules through a semi permeable membrane. Water moves from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration
Active Transport
An active movement where an input of energy is required. Particles move from low concentration to high concentration
Facilitated Diffusion
A passive movement of particles from high to low concentration through a protein channel in a cell.
Isotonic Solution
The same concentration of dissolved substances. Water in = water out.
Hypertonic Solution
Higher concentration of solutes outside cell than inside
Plasmolyse
When a cell has shrunk
Hypotonic Solution
A cell has more solute inside than outside.
Turgid
Cell may explode under pressure due to a hypotonic solution.
Exocytosis
Movement out of a cell
Endocytosis
Movement into a cell
Lysosome
A vesicle that contains destructive/digestive chemicals
Pinocytosis
A form of endocytosis where a cell engulfs liquid into the cell.
Phagocytosis
A form of endocytosis where a cell engulfs solids into a cell
Scientific question
Questions that can be answered by using experiments and factual reasoning.
Biology
The study of living organisms and how they function.
Scientific Method
A method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Hypothesis
1st part of the scientific method
experimental design
Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions (or IV groups) in an experiment.
variable
factors that are kept constant or unchanging.
observation
The process of studying of something to gain information.
inference
A conclusion made up of facts and inferring knowledge.
conclusion
The final ending or idea of a process
prediction
A statement about the hypothesis
qualitative observations
detailed examination with your senses only
quantitative observations
measuring something with numbers
homeostasis
Balancing human or any living organisms
metabolism
The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life
heredity
The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
Golgi apparatus
packages proteins from the ER and materials and sends them to other parts of the cell
Smooth ER
network or tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a smooth surface; functions in a variety of different metabolic processes such as synthesis of lipids, oils, phospholipid and steroids; process drugs, alcohol, and store calcium ions
Rough ER
network of tubular membanes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a rough surface (ribosomes are attached to it); helps the ribosomes make proteins, such as insulin
Organelles
tiny structures within the cell that carry out specific functions
plasma membrane
forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings; made if phospholipids
nucleus
oval-shaped organelle that contains DNA and controls much of the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis
mitochondrion
carries out cellular respiration; rod-shaped organelle that makes energy for the cell to function with; converts the energy stored in food to energy the cell can use (ATP); "powerhouse" of cell
nucleolus
nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells; makes rRNA to form the subunits of ribosomes, which then exit to the cytoplasm
chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins that form within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; directs the cells' functions
vacuole
sac-like organelle that holds water, food and organisms; can also store waste products until removed
chloroplast
green structure that captures energy from sunlight and changes it to energy that cells can use in making food.
prokaryote
plant, bacteria or archea cell
eukaryote
animal cell with nucleus
plasmodesma
...
ribosomes
small grain-shaped organelle that produces proteins
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and controls what goes in and out; found in animal cells
cytoplasm
the thick fluid region of a cell inside the membrane or next to the nucleus
lysosome
membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes; contains chemicals that break down bigger food particles so they can be used in the cell; also break down used cell parts. The cell's "recycling center".
cell wall
rigid layer surrounding the cells of plants
multicellular
made of many cells
unicellular
single-celled organism
centriole
small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way
phospholipid bilayer
thin membrane of lipid molecules
cytosol
part of cytoplasm not held by an organelle
cilia
the appendages that propel certain cells
cytoskeleton
networks of protein fibers that extend through the cell
cell theory
all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells
why are cells so small?
smaller cells have more surface area across which to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials
flagella
a projection from a prokaryotic cell that propels it through its liquid environment
cellular metabolism
chemical activities of cells
nuclear envelope
double membrane enclosing the nucleus; controls the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
where are ribosomes found?
free-floating in the cytosol, or bound to the rough ER or the nuclear envelope
endomembrane system
A system of membranes that are specific to a eukaryotic cell. Some are physically connected, while others link when vesicles transfer membrane segments between them.
vesicle
sacs made of membranes
what makes up the endomembrane system?
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles and the plasma membrane.
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
processes, warehouses and ships (outside and inside cell) ER products
cristae
folds in the mitochondria that increase the surface area and therefore its ability to produce ATP
ATP
Adenine Triphosphate - main energy source for cellular work
stroma
...
thylakoids
...
Plant Cell
What type of cell is this?
Animal Cell
What type of cell is this?
X) cell wall
Which of the following is NOT a structure found in human cells:
W) mitochondrion
X) cell wall
Y) lysosome
Z) peroxisome
Nucleus
What organelle functions to isolate a human cell's chromosomes from the cytoplasm?
Cell
What is the basic unit of life?
Chloroplast
In what organelle of a plant cell does photosynthesis occur?
Photosynthesis
It is generally believed that most of the oxygen in the air on Earth today came from what general biological process:
DNA
What is the most common term for the biological polymer found in chromosomes that stores genetic information?
Osmosis
The spontaneous movement of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane in order to create equilibrium.
Nucleus
These structures are located inside of a cell's...
Body Systems
Sets of organs in our bodies that do the work to keep us healthy and alive.
cells
Small part of all living things.
Organs
Made of thousands of cells, connected by several body systems to do work to keep our bodies healthy & alive.
photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen
photosynthesis equation(very important)
6CO2 + 6H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
chloroplasts
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
main function of chloroplasts is to produce food (glucose)
Chloroplasts contain the pigment, chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. This is why we see leaves as green or yellow - because these colors are reflected into our eyes.
glucose
another name for sugar C6H12O6
three things used for making glucose are sunlight water and carbon dioxide
used for energy and growth
sunlight
main source of energy
cellular respiration
C6H1206->CO2 + H20+ ENERGY (released)
goal is to create ATP
occurs in all living things
mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
the energy is stored in ATP until it is released by the reactions remove a phosphate from ATP
a simple way of remembering it is just that it's just energy
Metabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions.
Anabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
Catabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
Photosynthesis
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Herbivores
Organisms that eat only plants.
Carnivores
Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants.
Omnivores
Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms.
Producers
Organisms that produce their own food.
Consumers
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.
Decomposers
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.
Autotrophs
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Heterotrophs
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction that requires two organisms
Inheritance
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.
Mutation
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
Hypothesis
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
Theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
Scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
Microorganisms
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye.
Abiogenesis
The idea that long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through chemical reactions.
Prokaryotic cell
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
Eukaryotic cell
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
Species
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
Parasite
An organism that feeds on a living host.
Aerobic organism
An organism that requires oxygen.
Anaerobic organism
An organism that does not require oxygen.
Exponential growth
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Logistic growth
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
Nucleus
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA.
Vacuole
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell.
Chloroplast
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Mutualism
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
Commonesalism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
Parasitism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
Chitin
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
Membrane
A thin covering of tissue.
Fermentation
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
Atoms
The basic building blocks of matter.
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Model
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.
Element
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
Molecules
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.
Physical change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.
Chemical change
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.
Phase
One of the three forms--solid, liquid, or gas--which every substance is capable of attaining.
Diffusion
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Concentration
A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent.
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.
Osmosis
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.
Organic Molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.
Hydrophobic
Lacking any affinity to water.
Homeostasis
Maintaining the status quo.
Reproduction
Producing more cells.
Cytology
The study of cells.
Cell Wall
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
Plasma membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Cytoplasmic streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
Mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
Lysosome
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.
Ribosomes
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fore protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.
Rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes.
Smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes.
Central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
Phagocytosis
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
Pinocytic vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Microtubules
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.
Nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
Microfilaments
Fine, threadlike proteins found in a cell's cytoskeleton.
Intermediate filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
Phospholipid
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.
Passive transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.
Active transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.
Isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in a solution.
Hypertonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Plasmolysis
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
Hypotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
DNA
Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus
sexual reproduction
2 parents male and female
asexual reproduction
1 parent
Chromosomes
made up of DNA and proteins
homeostasis
state reaches when each part of the body functions in equilibrium with other parts.
nitrogenous base
is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen. In DNA, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
metabolism
all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism.
plasma
Liquid portion of blood
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
WHAT YOU MEASURE- ON Y AXIS
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
WHAT YOU CHOOSE VALUES FOR- ON Y AXIS
CONTROL VARIABLE
VARIABLES THAT REMAIN CONSTANT OR UNCHANGED
development
the change in shape or organisms over time. Ex. a child's ________ is very fast.
ecology
the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and with nonliving parts of their environment
gene
sections of chromosomes made of DNA that code for traits. The basic unit of heredity.
genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual.
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring. Ex. scientists know that _____ can increase chances for certain diseases.
interdependence
organisms in a biological community live and interact with other organisms.
mutation
a change in the DNA of a gene.
natural selection
process in which organisms with favorable genes are more likely to survive to reproduce. Ex. the idea of ____ ______ was first presented by Charles Darwin.
organism
any living thing; something that meets all criteria of life. Ex. so far, we have not found proof of any living ________ on another planet.
pH
a relative measure of the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution; Latin for "probably hydrogens".
differentiation
process by which cells become specialized for specific functions.
ingestion
taking in food from the environment.
regulation
process by which organisms maintain homeostasis, a stable internal environment.
reproduction
process by which organisms produce new organisms of their own kind
equilibrium
the state of both sides are balanced
evolution
the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
theory
a system of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence acquired through scientific investigation

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