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Ch. 4: Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
Terms in this set (95)
Which living cells are considered prokaryotic?
Bacteria, and Archaea
Which living cells are considered eukaryotic?
Plants, animals, and cellular microbes (fungi, protozoa, and algae)
What "sticky" substance is found surrounding both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
What are 7 similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
BOTH contain nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, and both use the same kinds of chemical reactions to metabolize food, build proteins, and store energy.
What 3 things differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
The structure of their cell walls, the structure of their membranes, and the presence/absence of organelles
Specialized cellular structures that have specific functions
Which cell (Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic) has DNA associated with histones?
What characteristics define Prokaryotes?
DNA is singular, circular, and not enclosed within a membrane. DNA is not associated with histones. They lack organelles, their cell walls contain peptidoglycan, and they reproduce asexually via binary fission.
What characteristics define Eukaryotes?
DNA is found in multiple chromosomes separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane and contained within a nucleus. DNA is associated with histones and nonhistones. They contain membrane-enclosed organelles, their cell walls lack peptidoglycan, and they reproduce sexually via mitosis.
What 5 things differentiate bacteria?
Morphology (shape), chemical composition, nutritional requirements, biochemical activities and the source of energy.
What determines the shape of a bacteria?
What is a monomorphic bacteria?
A bacteria that maintains a single shape
What is a pleomorphic bacteria?
A bacteria that can have many shapes
What is the difference between monomorphic and pleomorphic bacteria?
The morphology (shape) of monomorphic bacteria can be altered by environmental conditions
What are the 3 main shapes of bacteria?
Coccus/cocci, bacillus/bacilli, and spiral
What bacterial shape is spherical?
What bacterial shape is rod-shapped?
What are the 5 types of coccus/cocci bacterial shapes?
Diplo-, strepto-, tetrads, sarcinae, staphylo-
What are the 4 types of bacillus/bacilli bacterial shapes?
Single-, diplo-, strepto-, cocco-
What are the 3 types of spiral bacterial shapes?
Vibrios, spirilla/spirillum, spirochetes
Spherical shape; remain attached in pairs after division
Spherical shape; remain attached in chainlike patterns after division
Spherical shape; those that divide in 2 planes and remain groups of 4
Spherical shape; those tat divide in 3 planes and remain attached in cube like groups of 8
Spherical shape; those that divide in multiple planes and form grapelike clusters or broad sheets
Describe single bacilli.
Rod-shaped; single rods
Rod-shaped; pairs after division
Rod-shaped; ovular and appear to look like cocci
Spiral; curved like rods
Spiral; helical shape, like a corkscrew, and fairly rigid bodies (
move via flagella
Spiral; helical shape, flexible bodies (
move via axial filaments/ endoflagella
What are the 2 major differences between spirilla/spirillum and spirochetes?
Spirilla/spirillum have rigid bodies and move via flagella, while spirochetes have flexible bodies and move via axial filaments/endoflagellum
What are the 5 possible structures external to the cell wall (of prokaryotes)?
Glococalyx, flagella, axial filaments, fimbriae, and/or pili
A sugar coat surrounding cells that are secreted by the cell itself
What are the two possible forms of glycocalyx?
Can present as either a capsule or a slime layer
What are the 2 major differences between a capsule and a slime layer?
A capsule is organized and firmly attached to the cell wall, while a slime layer is unorganized and loosely attached
Can a capsule be gram-stained? Can a slime layer?
Which of the following contributes to bacterial virulence:
B. slime layer
Describe bacterial virulence.
The degree to which a pathogen causes disease
What is the main function of glycocalyx?
To help protect the cell against dehydration- the viscosity can prevent the movement of nutrient out of the cell
Describe extracellular polymeric substance (EPS).
A glycocalyx that helps cells in a biofilm attach to their target environment and to each other.
What are the 3 functions of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)?
Protects the cells inside, facilitates communication between cells, facilitates survival by attaching to surfaces in the environment.
Long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria
What are the two main categories of flagella?
Are either peritrichous or polar
Describe peritrichous flagella.
Distributed over the entire cell
Describe polar flagella.
Are present at one or both poles/ends of the cell
What are the 3 subtypes of polar flagella?
Monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitricous
Describe monotrichous flagella.
A single flagellum at one pole
Describe lophotrichous flagella.
A tuft of flagella coming from one pole
Describe amphitrichous flagella.
Flagella at both poles of the cell.
What are the 3 parts of a flagella?
Filament, hook, basal body
What part of the flagella changes based on whether the bacteria is gram-positive or gram-negative?
Describe the basal body of a gram-positive bacteria.
Thick membrane; 1 ring pair present that attaches to the inner part of the plasma membrane
Describe the basal body of a gram-negative bacteria.
Thin membrane; 2 ring pairs. Inner pair attaches to the plasma membrane, while the outer pair attaches to the cell wall.
How does the movement of flagella attached to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ?
Prokaryotic flagella move in a clockwise/counterclockwise motion while eukaryotic flagella have wave-like motions
The ability of an organism to move by itself
What can alter a bacterial cells motility?
Different patterns arise based on the speed and direction of flagellar rotation
Describe a "run"/"swim".
The type of motility when a bacterium moves in one direction for a length or time.
Describe a "tumble".
The periodic interrupting of a "run"/"swim" caused by reversal of flagellar rotation
What is the purpose of a bacterium having motility?
Allows the cell to move toward a favorable environment and away from an unfavorable one (aka allows for taxis to occur)
Describe attractant chemotaxis.
A positive chemotactic signal that produces more runs than tumbles.
Describe repellent chemotaxis.
A negative chemotactic signal that produces more tumbles than runs.
What are the two types of taxis?
Variations within a species (of bacteria)
Describe axial filaments.
Bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell
What is another name for axial filaments?
What type of movement do the axial filaments of spirochetes produce?
A corkscrew type movement/spiral motion
On which type of bacteria (gram positive/gram negative) are fimbriae and pili found?
What proteins correspond to flagellar and fimbriae/pili make-up?
How do fimbriae and pili differ from flagella?
They are shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella
Rank the following in order from longest to shortest:
pili, flagella, fimbriae
(longest) flagella, pili, fimbriae (shortest)
Which is more numerous per cell, pili or fimbriae?
What is the function of fimbriae?
Plays a role in biofilms because they stick to each other and other surfaces
What is the function of pili?
Are involved in motility and DNA transfer
What are the 2 important types of pili motility?
Twitching motility, gliding motility
Describe the twitching motility of pili.
Pilus extends to the surface of another cell and retracts, causing short and jerky movements
Describe the gliding motility of pili.
Smooth gliding movements
What is the function of sex pili?
Allows for conjugation and the "passing on" of antibiotic resistance
What are the 3 major functions of the cell wall in prokaryotes?
Prevents lysis due to a build up of osmotic pressure in the cell, is responsible for the shape of the cell, and serves as an anchorage point for flagella
What are bacterial cell walls made of?
Peptidoglycan (aka murein)
Describe the peptidoglycan of gram-positive cell walls.
Has many layers, resulting in a thick and rigid structure
Define plasmic space.
The space between the cell wall and plasma membrane of gram-positive bacteria
What type of bacteria (gram negative/positive) has lipoteichoic acid and wall teichoic acid in its cell wall?
Where can lipoteichoic acid and wall teichoic acid be found?
Lipoteichoic- linked to the plasma membrane; goes through the plasmic space
Wall teichoic- linked to the peptidoglycan layer; does not go to the plasmic space
What is the purpose of the teichoic acids in the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria?
The negative charge allows them to regulate the movement of cations (positive ions) into and out of the cell
Describe the peptidoglycan of gram-negative cell walls.
Define periplasmic space.
The area between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane; contains periplasm
A gel like fluid in the periplasmic space which holds the peptidoglycan and contains both degradative enzymes and transport proteins
What protein is found in both gram-negative and positive bacteria?
What is one large part of gram-negative cell walls that is not present in gram-positive cell walls.
An outer membrane
What is the outer membrane made of?
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoproteins, and phospholipids
What are the 2 main functions of the outer membrane?
It's strong negative charge allows the cell to evade phagocytosis, and provides a barrier to detergents, heavy metals, bile salts, certain dyes, antibiotics, and digestive enzymes
Which cell wall (gram-negative/positive) has porins, and what do they do?
Porins are proteins found in the outer membrane of gram-negative cells, and function as channels to allow the passage of molecules into the cell
What components of both gram-negative and positive cell walls help to identify them?
Gram-positive: teichoic acids
Gram-negative: o polysaccharide (component of LPS)
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