AP American Government & Politics today - Chapter 5 Vocab

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Civil Rights
All the rights rooted within the 14th amendment's guarantee of equal protection under law.
Black Codes
Laws passed by southern states right after the civil war that denied most legal rights to freed slaves
Jim Crow Laws
Laws enacted by southern states that enforced segregation in schools, in transportation, and in public accommodations.
separate but equal doctrine
the 1896 doctrine holding that separate but equal facilities do not violate the equal protection clause.
White Primary
A state primary election that restricts voting to whites only; Outlawed by Supreme Court in 1944
Grandfather clause
Device used by southern states to disenfranchise African Americans. It restricted voting to only those whose grandfather had voted before 1867
Poll tax
A special tax that must be paid as a qualification for voting. The 24th Amendment to the Constitution outlawed the Poll Tax in national elections, and in 1966, the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in all elections.
Literacy test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often to prevent African Americans from being able to vote
De facto segregation
Racial segregation based on past social/ economic decisions and residential racial patterns
De Jure Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
Civil Disobedience
a nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.
subpoena
A legal writ requiring a person's appearance in court to give testimony
Sexual Harassment
Unwanted physical or verbal conduct or abuse of a sexual nature that interferes with a recipient's job performance, creates a hostile work environment, or carries with it an implicit or explicit threat of adverse employment consequences
Affirmative Action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Reverse discrimination
The charge that an affirmative action program discriminates against those who do not have minority status.