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Exam 2 Trivia Questions

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How do arteries and veins compare in terms of lumen diameter, wall thickness, and thickest layer?
Arteries have narrower lumens and thicker walls. The thickest layer in arteries is the tunica media, the thickest layer in veins is the tunica externa.
What type of capillary is the most permeable, and where in the body are they found?
Sinusoids. They are found in the bone marrow, liver, spleen, and in some endocrine glands.
How does a vein serve as a blood reservoir?
A relatively large proportion of the blood is in the systemic veins at rest. With exertion, the veins can vasoconstrict, forcing more blood into circulation.
Describe the blood vessel pathway in a portal system.
Artery, capillary bed, portal vein, second capillary bed, vein
What is the difference between hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure?
Hydrostatic pressure is the force exerted by a fluid on a structure (i.e. a blood vessel).
Osmotic pressure is the "pull" of water into an area by osmosis due to higher relative concentration of solutes.
How does the hydrostatic pressure change fro the arterial end of a capillary to the venous end of a capillary? Do you see similar changes in colloid osmotic pressure?
Hydrostatic pressure decreases from the capillary to the venous ends of a capillary.
Colloid osmotic pressure remains relatively unchanged.
Where are T-lymphocytes formed? Where do they complete their maturation?
T-lymphocytes are formed in the red bone marrow.
They complete their maturation in the thymus.
How does lymph flow through a lymph node?
In one of the afferent ducts, through lymph node sinuses, out efferent duct
What are the general functions of the spleen?
Phagocytosis of bacteria and foreign materials; phagocytosis of old and defective erythrocytes and platelets; platelet reservoir
What are the three main groups of tonsils and their function?
Pharyngeal, palatine, and lingual. All help protect against foreign substances that may be inhaled or ingested.
Where is MALT found in the body?
In the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genital, and urinary tracts.
How is angiotensinogen activated to become angiotensin II? How does angiotensin II influence blood pressure?
Renin initiates the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (mostly in the lungs).
Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor; it stimulates the thirst center and decreases urine formation.
What three factors alter resistance? How does each affect blood flow in vessels?
Greater blood viscosity, increased vessel length, and decreased vessel radius correlate with greater resistance.
How is the small pressure gradient in the veins overcome?
Valves, skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump
Which pathogen must enter a cell to replicate? Which type of pathogen consists of prokaryotic cells?
viruses; bacteria
What types of immune cells are housed in lymphatic tissue? What two types of immune cells are located in the skin and mucosal membranes?
T- and B- lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells.
Dendritic and mast cells.
What is the definition of a cytokine?
Cytokines are small soluble proteins produced by cells of the innate and adaptive immune system that have various effects on immune and non-immune cells.
What are the cells of adaptive immunity?
T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes
What positive role is played by nonpathogenic microorganisms on the skin and mucous membranes?
They help prevent the growth of pathogenic organisms.
How do NK cells accomplish the task of eliminating unwanted cells?
They release cytotoxic chemicals, including perforins (form transmembrane pore in unwanted cells) and granzymes (initiate apoptosis).
In what ways does exudate assist in the body's defense?
Exudate delivers cells and substances needed to eliminate the injurious agent and promote healing. It also increases hydrostatic pressure, resulting in additional fluid uptake by lymphatic capillaries, where the contents can be monitored through a series of lymph nodes.
What are the four major means by which complement participates in innate immunity?
opsonization, increasing inflammation, cytolysis, elimination of immune complexes
What distinguishes neutrophils from macrophages?
Neutrophils are prevalent in the blood and the first to arrive during inflammatory response. Macrophages reside in the tissue. They arrive later but stay longer. Both engulf unwanted substances.
What are the three stages of fever?
Onset, stadium, defervescence
How is an antigenic determinant related to an antigen?
An antigenic determinant is a specific site on the antigen molecule that is recognized by components of the immune system.
What distinguishes a hapten from an antigen?
A hapten is a substance too small to function as an antigen alone, but which triggers an immune response when attached to a carrier molecule.