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Chapter 12 Section 3
Terms in this set (18)
Political Instability in Latin America After Independence
Democracy fails to take root in the newly independent Latin American nations in the 1800s. Wealth and power remain in the hands of the few. Latin American economies become increasingly dependent upon more developed countries
The Colonial Legacy
Social and political structure remain the same. Creoles replace Peninsulares as the ruling class. Life remains the same for the lower classes; limited voting rights, racial prejudice, small groups of people hold most of the land and power
Loyalty to a local area
Strong local leaders
The Search for Stability
No tradition of unity. Caudillos assembled private armies to resist the government; sometimes gained power and ruled as military dictators. Frequent revolts lead to little change, power remains in the hands of a privileged few. Split between conservatives and liberals. Liberals support progress, but show little concern for the needs of the majority of the people
The Cycle of Economic Dependence
Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal (couldn't develop their own economies). With independence, the Latin American countries introduce free trade, Britain and the U.S. enter their markets, but just replace Spain
Foreign Influence Mounts
Foreign goods flood Latin American markets in the 1800s, creating large profits for foreigners and only a few local business people. The foreign investment came with local interference. Foreign countries (Britain and the U.S.) would take action if events in Latin America would threaten their interests there
Some Economic Growth
Foreign capital enables mining and agriculture to develop. Foreigners invest in modern ports and railroads to carry goods from the interior to coastal cities, but development primarily benefits foreign investors. Latin American countries enter the world economy, but internal development is limited. The poor are too poor to buy consumer goods
The Monroe Doctrine
"The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers."
The U.S. Expands into Latin America
Victory in the war with Mexico (1848) fed dreams of expansion for the U.S. By 1900, the U.S. controls much of North America and is becoming involved in overseas conflicts. Cuba gains independence in the Spanish-American War (1898). 1901, the U.S. forces Cuba to add the Platt Amendment to its constitution, allowing the U.S. to set up naval bases in Cuba and giving the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
Panama belonged to Colombia, who refused to sell the land for a canal to the U.S. 1903 - the U.S. backs a Panamanian revolt against Colombia, Panama gains independence and makes a deal with the U.S. for the land. Construction lasts 10 years, and cuts the distance of a sea journey from New York to San Francisco by thousands of miles. Latin Americans view the canal as "Yankee imperialism" - resenting U.S. influence. Panama gains complete control of the canal in 2000
To the Monroe Doctrine is issued in 1904, declaring the U.S. an international police power in the Western Hemisphere. A result of growing American investments in Latin America. The U.S. sends troops to various Latin American countries to protect investments
Why did the gap between rich and poor in Latin America grow after Independence?
Both before and after Independence, most Latin Americans worked for large landowners. The employers pay their workers with vouchers that can be used only at their own supply stores. Since we just were low and prices were high, workers went into debt. They're debt accumulated and passed from one generation to the next. Landowners however, only got wealthier after Independence. Many new Latin American governments took over the land owned by native people and by the Catholic church. Then they put those lands up for sale. Wealthy landowners were the only people who could afford to buy them, and they snapped them up.
What economic gains and setbacks did Latin American countries experienced after Independence?
They gained people to trade with, however, because they relied so heavily on other people to trade with they didn't feel the need to industrialize so they went into debt because they had to borrow money from other countries in order to build.
Why was the United States so interested in the security of Latin America?
We invested money in them
Why do you think upper-class Latin Americans favored governments run by caudillos?
Because they opposed giving power to the lower classes. In addition, Latin Americans had gained little experience with democracy under European colonial rule. So, the dictatorship of a caudillo did not seem unusual to them. But even then when caudillos were not in power, most Latin Americans still lacked a voice in the government. Voting rights; and with them, political power; restricted to the relatively few members of the upper and middle classes who owned property or could read.
Do you think that U.S. imperialism was more beneficial or harmful to Latin American people? Explain.
Beneficial because it created jobs and exports which helped farmers and workers
How was the principle of the Roosevelt Corollary different from that of the Monroe Doctrine?
-Roosevelt Corollary: Gave the United States the right to be an international police power in the Western Hemisphere
-Monroe Doctrine: This document stated that the American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers
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