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103 terms

Apush Notecards

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Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Lord Baltimore
He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Walter Raleigh
English explorer and soldier who explored North America and founded the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke in 1587
Francisco Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca's
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492
James Olgethorpe
founded colony of Georgia
John Rolfe
married Pocahontas and started the planting of tobacco in Jamestown wich made Virginia a succesful colony
Humphrey Gilbert
promoter of the first English attempt at colonization in Newfoundland
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
Vasco da Gamma
Gave Portugal a direct sea route to India
Oliver Cromwell
The dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. His death caused the collpase of England's military governmnt
John Smith
he helped find the colony of Jamestown, Virginia and helped save them from starvation
Nation-State
A country who's population share a common identity
Royal Charter
A royal document granting a English settlers the right to form a colony
Squatter
One who settles on land without legal permission
Joint Stock Company
a company in which investors buy stock in return for a share of its future profits
Slave Codes
laws passed in the colonies to control slaves
Primogeniture
the right of inheriting all of the family land belongs to the eldest son
Slavery
the practice of one person owning another person
Indentured Servant
a person who sold his or her labor in exchange for passage to America
Dominion of England
English government merged Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Rhode Island together
Enclosure
artifact consisting of a space that has been enclosed for some purpose
Proprietor
individual who received legal and exclusive right to own a colony
Conquistador
a Spanish conqueror of the Americas
Renaissance
the revival of learning and culture (rebirth)
Spanish Armada
1588 fleet that attempted an invasion of England and failed
Virginia Company
joint-stock company gave virginia settlers some power of self government
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
Restoration
the act of restoring something or someone to a satisfactory state
Maryland act of Toleration
The act passed in 1649 to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland.
House of Burgesses
first form of representative government in the new world
Black Legend
Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing newly discovered lands between them
John Calvin
religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
Peter Stuyvesant
Governor of the Dutch colony: New Netherland
John Winthrop
first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
Anne Hutchison
member of the Puritan Church who criticized the teachings of Puritan leaders. She was exiled and moved to Rhode Island.
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury, denied Puritans the right to publish and preach in 1630, was executed in 1645
King Philip
made an alliance with the native americans, became their leader and attacked the New England settlers
Roger Williams
Founded Rhode Island
Thomas Hooker
founded Connecticut was called "the father of American democracy"
John Cotton
a very religious Puritan who escaped England Church
Henry Hudson
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River
William Penn
Founder of Pennsylvania
Sir Edmond Andros
corrupt leader who was hated because of his ties to the Church of England
William Bradford
Governor who replaced old governor and helped Plimoth colony survive
Separatists
Also known as Pilgrims, people who wanted to have a separate, or different church.
The "elect"
Calvin's term for those destined for salvation, regardless of what actions they may commit during their mortal life on earth.
Freeman
A man who was not a slave but not royalty
Doctrine of Calling
Doctorine believed by John Winthrop instructing puritans to do
Gods work
Fundamental Orders
the first written system of government in North America. It was adopted in Connecticut.
Franchise
an authorization to sell a company's goods or services in a particular place
"Visible Saints"
according to Puritans, only these individuals should be admitted to church membership
Covenant
a solemn agreement; a contract; a pledge
Patroonship
Large plantation-type farm estabished by the Dutch along the Hudson River in the 1600s.
Conversion
the act of changing from one use or function or purpose to another
antinomianism
Idea brought by Anne Huntchinson claimed holy life was no sure sign of Salvation
Predestination
previous determination as if by destiny or fate
Protestant Reformation
movement to reform the Catholic Church
Navigation Laws
laws that restricted American trade with other countries
Bible Commonwealth
another name for the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of religious drive
Mayflower Compact
A formal document, written in 1620, that provided law and order to the Plymouth colony
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.
Pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony
Great Puritan Migration
many ships delievered people to massachutes to settle in the new world which was becoming populated with Puritans
Glorious Revolution
the revolution against James II
Quakers
Religious group that settled Pennsylvania. They believed in no war and equality for all.
Mayflower
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
New England Confederation
early colonial union involving the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut settlements
Calvinism
believed in predestination, that God was all knowing and it became the dominant theological credo of the Puritans
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Protestant ethic
a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs.
General Court
A Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor
Yeoman
a farmer who cultivates his own land
Massachussetts Bay Company
a company chartered in England to establish a colony on Massachusetts Bay, that founded Boston in 1630.
The Great Awakening
a religious movement that began in the Middle Colonies that renewed many people's interest in religion
Albany Congress
A meeting in Albany, New York, in 1754, in which the British colonies attempted to make an alliance with the Iroquois tribe in order to end their differences. The Iroquois, however, rejected the offer.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin's major work that established the theology and doctrine of the Calvinist churches
William Berkely
Virginia governor, friendly policies toward inians; monopolized fur trade; was taken over by Nathanial Bacon
Nathanial Bacon
leader of rebels. Berkley's enemy; bold and determined
Halfway Covenant
Offered partial membership rights to people who have not yet converted.
Indentured Servitude
the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America,
Headright System
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
Middle Passage
the middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas
Jeremiads
Puritan preachers warned of decline of church, serious problem in New England
Bacon's Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
Jonathan Edwards
Forceful preacher who started the Great Awakening
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights.
Phyllis Wheatly
former slave who learned to read and write; first African American poet
Benjamin Franklin
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.
John Peter Zenger
Publisher who criticized the British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
Old and New Lights
the traditional and new members of the church during the Great Awakening
Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who revolted against and massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Regulator Movement
groups who roamed areas of rural South Carolina trying to combat relaxed law enforcement
Molasses Act
A British law passed in 1733 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain.
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer who founded Quebec, the first permanent French settlement in North America
Robert de la Salle
Explorer who claimed the entire Mississippi River valley for France
Edward Braddock
English Commander who was killed during the French and Indian War
William Pitt
English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end.
James Wolfe
The British commander at Battle of Quebec during the French and Indian War. He was killed during the battle
Pontiac
famous chief of the Ottawa who led an unsuccessful rebellion against the British
Hugenots
Protestants from France similar to Puritans
Proclomation of 1763
law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains