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Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

Lord Baltimore

He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.

Walter Raleigh

English explorer and soldier who explored North America and founded the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke in 1587

Francisco Pizzaro

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca's

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in 1492

James Olgethorpe

founded colony of Georgia

John Rolfe

married Pocahontas and started the planting of tobacco in Jamestown wich made Virginia a succesful colony

Humphrey Gilbert

promoter of the first English attempt at colonization in Newfoundland

Hernando Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico

Vasco da Gamma

Gave Portugal a direct sea route to India

Oliver Cromwell

The dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. His death caused the collpase of England's military governmnt

John Smith

he helped find the colony of Jamestown, Virginia and helped save them from starvation


A country who's population share a common identity

Royal Charter

A royal document granting a English settlers the right to form a colony


One who settles on land without legal permission

Joint Stock Company

a company in which investors buy stock in return for a share of its future profits

Slave Codes

laws passed in the colonies to control slaves


the right of inheriting all of the family land belongs to the eldest son


the practice of one person owning another person

Indentured Servant

a person who sold his or her labor in exchange for passage to America

Dominion of England

English government merged Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Rhode Island together


artifact consisting of a space that has been enclosed for some purpose


individual who received legal and exclusive right to own a colony


a Spanish conqueror of the Americas


the revival of learning and culture (rebirth)

Spanish Armada

1588 fleet that attempted an invasion of England and failed

Virginia Company

joint-stock company gave virginia settlers some power of self government


A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory


the act of restoring something or someone to a satisfactory state

Maryland act of Toleration

The act passed in 1649 to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland.

House of Burgesses

first form of representative government in the new world

Black Legend

Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good

Treaty of Tordesillas

Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing newly discovered lands between them

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society

Peter Stuyvesant

Governor of the Dutch colony: New Netherland

John Winthrop

first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

Anne Hutchison

member of the Puritan Church who criticized the teachings of Puritan leaders. She was exiled and moved to Rhode Island.

William Laud

Archbishop of Canterbury, denied Puritans the right to publish and preach in 1630, was executed in 1645

King Philip

made an alliance with the native americans, became their leader and attacked the New England settlers

Roger Williams

Founded Rhode Island

Thomas Hooker

founded Connecticut was called "the father of American democracy"

John Cotton

a very religious Puritan who escaped England Church

Henry Hudson

English navigator who discovered the Hudson River

William Penn

Founder of Pennsylvania

Sir Edmond Andros

corrupt leader who was hated because of his ties to the Church of England

William Bradford

Governor who replaced old governor and helped Plimoth colony survive


Also known as Pilgrims, people who wanted to have a separate, or different church.

The "elect"

Calvin's term for those destined for salvation, regardless of what actions they may commit during their mortal life on earth.


A man who was not a slave but not royalty

Doctrine of Calling

Doctorine believed by John Winthrop instructing puritans to do
Gods work

Fundamental Orders

the first written system of government in North America. It was adopted in Connecticut.


an authorization to sell a company's goods or services in a particular place

"Visible Saints"

according to Puritans, only these individuals should be admitted to church membership


a solemn agreement; a contract; a pledge


Large plantation-type farm estabished by the Dutch along the Hudson River in the 1600s.


the act of changing from one use or function or purpose to another


Idea brought by Anne Huntchinson claimed holy life was no sure sign of Salvation


previous determination as if by destiny or fate

Protestant Reformation

movement to reform the Catholic Church

Navigation Laws

laws that restricted American trade with other countries

Bible Commonwealth

another name for the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of religious drive

Mayflower Compact

A formal document, written in 1620, that provided law and order to the Plymouth colony

Dutch West India Company

Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.


English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony

Great Puritan Migration

many ships delievered people to massachutes to settle in the new world which was becoming populated with Puritans

Glorious Revolution

the revolution against James II


Religious group that settled Pennsylvania. They believed in no war and equality for all.


the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620

New England Confederation

early colonial union involving the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut settlements


believed in predestination, that God was all knowing and it became the dominant theological credo of the Puritans


A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.

Protestant ethic

a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs.

General Court

A Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor


a farmer who cultivates his own land

Massachussetts Bay Company

a company chartered in England to establish a colony on Massachusetts Bay, that founded Boston in 1630.

The Great Awakening

a religious movement that began in the Middle Colonies that renewed many people's interest in religion

Albany Congress

A meeting in Albany, New York, in 1754, in which the British colonies attempted to make an alliance with the Iroquois tribe in order to end their differences. The Iroquois, however, rejected the offer.

Institutes of the Christian Religion

John Calvin's major work that established the theology and doctrine of the Calvinist churches

William Berkely

Virginia governor, friendly policies toward inians; monopolized fur trade; was taken over by Nathanial Bacon

Nathanial Bacon

leader of rebels. Berkley's enemy; bold and determined

Halfway Covenant

Offered partial membership rights to people who have not yet converted.

Indentured Servitude

the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America,

Headright System

The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land

Middle Passage

the middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas


Puritan preachers warned of decline of church, serious problem in New England

Bacon's Rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

Jonathan Edwards

Forceful preacher who started the Great Awakening

George Whitefield

Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights.

Phyllis Wheatly

former slave who learned to read and write; first African American poet

Benjamin Franklin

American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.

John Peter Zenger

Publisher who criticized the British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.

Old and New Lights

the traditional and new members of the church during the Great Awakening

Paxton Boys

A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who revolted against and massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.

Regulator Movement

groups who roamed areas of rural South Carolina trying to combat relaxed law enforcement

Molasses Act

A British law passed in 1733 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain.

Samuel de Champlain

French explorer who founded Quebec, the first permanent French settlement in North America

Robert de la Salle

Explorer who claimed the entire Mississippi River valley for France

Edward Braddock

English Commander who was killed during the French and Indian War

William Pitt

English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end.

James Wolfe

The British commander at Battle of Quebec during the French and Indian War. He was killed during the battle


famous chief of the Ottawa who led an unsuccessful rebellion against the British


Protestants from France similar to Puritans

Proclomation of 1763

law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains

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