Terms in this set (79)

  • mitochondria
    the energy structure of the cell
  • What kind of membranes make up the mitochondria?
    a smooth outer membrane inner membrane with folds (cristae)
  • What is the cristae do?
    converts chemical energy from food (glucose) into ATP
  • What is the matrix in mitochondria?
    the fluid inside the cristae
  • What is another term for aerobic metabolism?
    cellular respiration
  • What does "aerobic" mean?
    uses oxygen
  • How does the mitochondria use oxygen?
    1. break down food 2. produce ATP
  • What is another way of writing the process of cellular respiration?
    gluose + oxygen + ADP ----- carbon dioxide + water + ATP
  • What does "lysis" mean?
    to break
  • Where does glycolysis occur?
    in the cytosol
  • What process turns glucose into pyruvic acid?
    glycolysis
  • What is another term for the citric acid cycle?
    Krebs cycle or tricarboxlyic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
    cristae
  • What does the krebs cycle do?
    breaks down pyruvic acid to form ATP
  • During the krebs cycle, what does pyruvic acid is converted into what in the matrix?
    carbon dioxide
  • What does the citric cycle involve?
    electron transport chain
  • What is the largest organelle in the cell?
    nucleus
  • What is the cell's control center?
    nucleus
  • What is the nuclear envelope composed of?
    a double membrane of phospholipid bilayers
  • What is the perinuclear space?
    the space between the membranes
  • What are nuclear pores?
    openings into the nucleus AKA communication passages
  • What does "-plasm" mean?
    fluid
  • What is nucleoplasm?
    fluid found in the nucleus
  • What does the nucleoplasm contain?
    ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and some RNA
  • What is nuclear matrix?
    support filaments
  • What is the nucleolus made of?
    RNA, enzymes, and histones
  • What does the nucleolus do?
    synthesize rRNA and ribosomal subunits
  • What is DNA composed of?
    all the information to build and run organisms (mostly enzymes and proteins)
  • What are nucleosomes?
    subunit of DNA that is coiled around histones
  • What is chromatin?
    loose DNA in which cells are not dividing
  • What are chromosomes?
    tightly coiled DNA in which cells are dividing
  • What is the genetic code?
    chemical language of DNA instructions (mostly to produce bases)
  • What is a triplet code?
    3 bases = 1 amino acid
  • What is a gene?
    DNA instructions for one protein
  • What does DNA store?
    genes
  • Where is DNA located in the cell?
    in the nucleus
  • What is the first step in protein synthesis? `
    uncoiling the DNA in the nucleus
  • What do proteins determine?
    cell structure and function
  • What happens in the process of transcription?
    DNA is copied into mRNA
  • Where does transcription take place?
    in the nucleus
  • What happens in the process of translation?
    ribosomes build amino acids from the mRNA
  • Where does translation take place?
    in the cytoplasm
  • What happens to the protein after translation?
    it is folded and altered
  • What two places alter and fold proteins in the cell?
    Rough ER and Golgi Apparatus
  • What does the promoter do?
    marks the beginning of a gene on a strand of DNA
  • What does the terminator do?`
    marks the end of a gene on a strand of DNA
  • What is the coding strand?
    the code for the protein
  • What is the template strand?
    the strand used to build the mRNA
  • What enzyme binds to the promoter (start) sequence in DNA?
    RNA polymerase
  • What does the RNA polymerase do?
    reads the DNA code for the gene
  • Which strand does the mRNA duplicate?
    the coding strand
  • What is the difference in RNA and DNA?
    Uracil replaces Thymine
  • After the polymerase finishes creating the mRNA strand, what process is next?
    RNA processing
  • What happens in the process of RNA processing?
    introns are removed and the exons are spliced together
  • What is a codon?
    a triplet of three nucleotides
  • Where does the mRNA strand go after RNA processing?
    out of the nucleus
  • What does the mRNA strand do after it leaves the nucleus?
    binds to ribosomal subunits
  • How does the mRNA strand leave the nucleus?
    through a nuclear pore
  • What does the tRNA bind to in the cytoplasm?
    amino acids
  • What does the anticodon on tRNA bind to?
    mRNA corresponding codon
  • What binds the amino acids in translation?
    peptide bonds
  • How does the nucleus directly influence the cell structure and function?
    making structural proteins and secretions
  • How does the nucleus indirectly control metabolism?
    enzymes
  • What needs to get into the cell?
    nutrients
  • What needs to leave the cell?
    products and wastes
  • What determines what moves in and out of a cell?
    permeability
  • What can get through an impermeable membrane?
    nothing
  • What can get through a freely permeable membrane?
    anything
  • What can get through a selectively permeable membrane?
    certain things
  • What is an example of a selectively permeable membrane in the body?
    blood vessel
  • How permeable is the plasma membrane?
    selectively permeable
  • What factors determine what can enter the cell?
    size electrical charge molecular shape lipid solubility
  • What are the two means of transport through a plasma membrane?
    active (needs energy) and passive (no energy)
  • What are the three types of membrane transport?
    diffusion (passive) carrier-mediated (passive or active) vesicular (active)
  • What is concentration?
    amount of solute in solvent
  • What is concentration gradient?
    more solute in one part of a solvent than another
  • What is Brownian motion?
    random movement of particles
  • What factors influence diffusion?
    distance molecular size concentration gradient electrical forces
  • What moves through the membrane through simple diffusion?
    lipid soluble substances (alcohol, fatty acids, and steroids) dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)