the energy structure of the cell
What kind of membranes make up the mitochondria?
a smooth outer membrane
inner membrane with folds (cristae)
What is the cristae do?
converts chemical energy from food (glucose) into ATP
What is the matrix in mitochondria?
the fluid inside the cristae
What is another term for aerobic metabolism?
What does "aerobic" mean?
How does the mitochondria use oxygen?
1. break down food
2. produce ATP
What is another way of writing the process of cellular respiration?
gluose + oxygen + ADP ----- carbon dioxide + water + ATP
What does "lysis" mean?
Where does glycolysis occur?
in the cytosol
What process turns glucose into pyruvic acid?
What is another term for the citric acid cycle?
Krebs cycle or tricarboxlyic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
What does the krebs cycle do?
breaks down pyruvic acid to form ATP
During the krebs cycle, what does pyruvic acid is converted into what in the matrix?
What does the citric cycle involve?
electron transport chain
What is the largest organelle in the cell?
What is the cell's control center?
What is the nuclear envelope composed of?
a double membrane of phospholipid bilayers
What is the perinuclear space?
the space between the membranes
What are nuclear pores?
openings into the nucleus AKA
What does "-plasm" mean?
What is nucleoplasm?
fluid found in the nucleus
What does the nucleoplasm contain?
ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and some RNA
What is nuclear matrix?
What is the nucleolus made of?
RNA, enzymes, and histones
What does the nucleolus do?
synthesize rRNA and ribosomal subunits
What is DNA composed of?
all the information to build and run organisms (mostly enzymes and proteins)
What are nucleosomes?
subunit of DNA that is coiled around histones
What is chromatin?
loose DNA in which cells are not dividing
What are chromosomes?
tightly coiled DNA in which cells are dividing
What is the genetic code?
chemical language of DNA instructions (mostly to produce bases)
What is a triplet code?
3 bases = 1 amino acid
What is a gene?
DNA instructions for one protein
What does DNA store?
Where is DNA located in the cell?
in the nucleus
What is the first step in protein synthesis? `
uncoiling the DNA in the nucleus
What do proteins determine?
cell structure and function
What happens in the process of transcription?
DNA is copied into mRNA
Where does transcription take place?
in the nucleus
What happens in the process of translation?
ribosomes build amino acids from the mRNA
Where does translation take place?
in the cytoplasm
What happens to the protein after translation?
it is folded and altered
What two places alter and fold proteins in the cell?
Rough ER and Golgi Apparatus
What does the promoter do?
marks the beginning of a gene on a strand of DNA
What does the terminator do?`
marks the end of a gene on a strand of DNA
What is the coding strand?
the code for the protein
What is the template strand?
the strand used to build the mRNA
What enzyme binds to the promoter (start) sequence in DNA?
What does the RNA polymerase do?
reads the DNA code for the gene
Which strand does the mRNA duplicate?
the coding strand
What is the difference in RNA and DNA?
Uracil replaces Thymine
After the polymerase finishes creating the mRNA strand, what process is next?
What happens in the process of RNA processing?
introns are removed and the exons are spliced together
What is a codon?
a triplet of three nucleotides
Where does the mRNA strand go after RNA processing?
out of the nucleus
What does the mRNA strand do after it leaves the nucleus?
binds to ribosomal subunits
How does the mRNA strand leave the nucleus?
through a nuclear pore
What does the tRNA bind to in the cytoplasm?
What does the anticodon on tRNA bind to?
mRNA corresponding codon
What binds the amino acids in translation?
How does the nucleus directly influence the cell structure and function?
making structural proteins and secretions
How does the nucleus indirectly control metabolism?
What needs to get into the cell?
What needs to leave the cell?
products and wastes
What determines what moves in and out of a cell?
What can get through an impermeable membrane?
What can get through a freely permeable membrane?
What can get through a selectively permeable membrane?
What is an example of a selectively permeable membrane in the body?
How permeable is the plasma membrane?
What factors determine what can enter the cell?
What are the two means of transport through a plasma membrane?
active (needs energy) and passive (no energy)
What are the three types of membrane transport?
carrier-mediated (passive or active)
What is concentration?
amount of solute in solvent
What is concentration gradient?
more solute in one part of a solvent than another
What is Brownian motion?
random movement of particles
What factors influence diffusion?
What moves through the membrane through simple diffusion?
lipid soluble substances (alcohol, fatty acids, and steroids)
dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)