The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
The cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service.
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
The maximum amount of renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource.
Resource conservation ethic
The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone.
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction.
A dry open grassland.
Land dominated by trees and other woody vegetation and sometimes used for commercial logging.
A method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or most all of the trees within an area.
The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest.
Ecologically sustainable forestry
An approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees.
A large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species.
A fire deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on the forest floor.
National wildlife refuge
A federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife.
National wilderness area
An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
Environmental impact statement (EIS)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative.
Environmental mitigation plan
A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment.
Endangered Species Act
A 1973 U.S. act designed to protect species from extinction.
An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density.
An area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area.
Urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two.
The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs.
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways.
The phenomenon in which an increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow.
A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods.
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area.
A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.
A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue.
Sense of place
The feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character.
Transit-oriented development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.
Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities.
Urban growth boundary
A restriction on development outside a designated area.
A principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it.
a scenic or historically important area of countryside protected by the federal government for the enjoyment of the general public or the preservation of wildlife.
managed resources protected areas
Areas that allow for sustained use of biological, mineral, and recreational resources (eg. national forests)
habitat/species management areas
areas that are activey managed to maintain biological communities (eg. fire prevention/predator control)
strict nature reserves and wilderness areas
areas that are established to protect species and ecosstems
protected landscapes and seascapes
areas that combine the nodestructive use of natural resources with opportunities for toursm and recreation (eg. orchards, villages, beaches)
areas set aside to protect unique sittes of secial natural or cultural interest; mostly to protect historial landmarks
USFS manages timber harvesting, grazing and recreation land
national parks service (NPS)
NPS manages recreation and conservation lands
fish and wildlife service (FWS)
FWS manages wildlife conservation, hunting and recreation lands
graze (grassland) so heavily that the vegetation is damaged and the ground becomes liable to erosion
taylor grazing act
a united states federal law that regulates grazing on federal public land. the secretary of the interior has the authority to handle all of the regulations, and he became responsible for establishing grazing districts. Before these districts are created there must be a hearing held by the state (commons --> permit based system)
replanting trees for forest
protecting the inner core of a preserve by establishing 2 buffer zones in which local people can extract resources sustainably without harming the inner core
hot fire that leaps from tree top to tree top burning whole trees, not a lot of surface fires lead ot this, kill wildlife, vegetation, short term threats
what sound is measured in 85 dbA can be damaging 120 dbA is painful 180 dbA can kill
a forest fire that burns the humus and usually does not appear at the surface
healthy forest initiative
act created by gerge bush stating that intent is to reduce the threat of destructive wildfires The law seeks to accomplish this by allowing timber harvests on protected National Forest's land. T
Light pollution is a broad term that refers to multiple problems, all of which are caused by inefficient, unappealing, or (arguably) unnecessary use of artificial light.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square meters or square feet (for example a garden bed or a cave) or as large as many square kilometers or square mile
Mixed-use development is a type of urban development that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment use
a forest fire that burns only surface litter and undergrowth
urban heat island
a built-up area with temperatures that are higher than the rural areas surrounding it