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ISB 204 Exam 2 Terms
Terms in this set (20)
One of the alternative forms of a single gene. In pea plants, a single gene codes for color, and it comes in two alleles --- one codes for yellow seeds, the other for green seeds.
Chromosomes that are the same in function and hence size. Species that are diploid (have two sets of chromosomes) have matching pairs of homologous chromosomes; one member of each homologous pair is inherited from the female.
identical copies formed by the replication of a chromosome, with bot copies joined together by a common centromere. in other words, a sister chromatid may also be said to be "one-half" of the duplicated chromosome.
A haploid reproductive cell, either egg or sperm.
A fertilized egg. In humans, the developing organism from the time of fertilization through the time of the first cell division (about 30 hours after fertilization)
a process, occurring during meiosis, in which homologous chromosomes exchange reciprocal portions of themselves.
the random distribution of homologous chromosome pairs on differing sides of the metaphase plate during meiosis.
The physical separation of one cell into two daughter cells.
Possessing a single set of chromosomes. Human gametes (eggs and sperm) are haploid cells because they have only a single set of chromosomes. All other cells in the human body are diploid, meaning they possess two sets of chromosomes. Some organisms are strictly haploid. Bacteria, for example, have only a single chromosome, making them haploid.
Possessing two sets of chromosomes. All human cells are diploid with the exception of human gametes (eggs and sperm), which are haploid. Such haploid cells possess only a single set of chromosomes.
Having two identical alleles of a gene for a given character.
Possessing two different alleles of a gene for a given character
The genetic makeup of an organism, including all the genes that lie along its chromosomes.
A physiological feature, bodily characteristic, or behavior of an oragnism
Term used to designate an allele that is expressed in the heterozygous condition.
A genetic condition in which the heterozygote phenotype is intermediate between either of the homozygous phenotypes.
A condition in which two alleles of a given gene have different phenotypic effects, with both effects manifesting in organisms that are heterozygous for the gene.
Mendel's law of segregation
Differing characters in organisms result from two genetic elements (alleles) that separate in gamete formation, such that each gamete gets only one of the two alleles. Also known as Mendel's First Law, this is one of the principles of inheritance formulated by Gregor Mendel.
Mendel's law of independent assortment
During gamete formation, gene pairs assort independently of one another. Also known as Mendel's Second Law, this is one of the principles of inheritance formulated by Gregor Mendel.
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