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Arts and Humanities
MAN 3063 ORGAN. Ethics Midterm
Terms in this set (37)
deontological in nature
judges the morality of an action based on rules.
teleological in nature
theory of morality that derives duty or moral obligation from what is good or desirable.
Do the greatest good for the greatest number (Consequences)
pro:drives public policy &helpful in emergency situations
con:objectivity is difficult & lead to inconsistent results& focus on group and may hurt individual&leads to "ends justify means"
Kant's Categorical Imperative
Do what's right despite the consequences (Duty)
pros:set standards&builds moral courage&recognizes human rights
cons:competing obligations& people who truly believe they are doing the right thing& no exceptions
Rawl's Justice as Fairness
Balancing freedom and equality (Rights)
pros:veil of ignorance &protects personal liberty,not at expense of team& addresses weaknesses of utilitarianism
cons: not all on same page¬ enough liberty&differences in defined fairness in different groups
Live well (Character, Virtue Ethics)
pros:useful under pressure
cons: no rules to follow &situation specific&takes time , and individuals may not agree
Building healthy relationships (Relationships)
pros:relationships are central&recognizes the power of leaders
cons:relationships can undermine fairness& pressure for harmony can suppress individuals voices
Concern for others (Relationships)
pros:powerful force for goodwill&prevents ethical abuse&high moral character, advocate benefits in workplace
cons:not easy to put into practice &do you help others vs. yourself care
personal moral values
desirable goals, varying in importance, that serve as guiding principles in people's lives
The degree of compatibility between an employee and his/her work environment; Directly related to job satisfaction
deep-rooted dispositions, habits, skills, or traits of character that incline persons to perceive, feel, and act in ethically right and sensitive ways
a self-conception organized around a set of moral traits
6 components of personal ethical development plans
-Component 1: Realistic Self-Appraisal
-Component 2: Discovering Vocation
-Component 3: Personal Values
-Component 4: Character Development
-Component 5: Creating a Moral Identity
-Component 6: Drawing on Spiritual Resources
Intrinsic versus extrinsic values
Intrinsic is related to meaningfulness;
extrinsic is related to material wealth and possessions
Tips for realistic self-appraisal
-Take personal responsibility for your actions
-Learn from mistakes
Moral identity internalization versus moral identity symbolization
Degree to which the moral traits are central to the self-concept
Degree to which the traits are reflected in the respondent's actions in the world
What is workplace spirituality and how is it fostered in organizations?
the recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community
-Closeness and connection; friendship
-Nature and beauty
-Work that is dedicated to higher purposes
Dangers of organizational spirituality?
-Proselytizing, or trying to convert others to a specific religion or belief system
-Some may be more comfortable with spirituality in the workplace than others, who may see it as an invasion of privacy
-Used as a management tool to manipulate employees to work harder; equated with latest management fad
-Lack of theoretical / research base, emerging field of study
The recognition that an ethical dilemma exists.
Lack of moral imagination; tunnel vision; mental models do not include ethical elements
----Describing situation in moral terms (justice, fair, right, wrong) helps avoid moral muteness
Aspects of an ethical issue itself that are key to whether or not we recognize that is exists; The greater an ethical issue's moral intensity, the more likely we are to notice it
the gradual development of an individuals concept of right or wrong - conscious, religious values, social attitudes and certain behaviour
Competing values overcome our commitment to do the right thing; want to appear moral, but don't want to pay the price for actually behaving morally; self-interest over self-
James Rest, what are the 4 elements of ethical action?
-Component 1: Moral Sensitivity (Recognition)
-Component II: Moral Judgement
-Component III: Moral Motivation
-Component IV: Moral Character
Which of the characteristics of moral intensity have the strongest relationship to moral sensitivity?
-Magnitude of consequences: How high are the consequences?
-Social consensus: Is there widespread agreement that there is an issue?
Magnitude of consequences and social consensus have the strongest relationship to moral sensitivity
levels and stages of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
level 3: Post-conventional- individual develop more autonomous decision making based principles of right and justice.
stages: 3.2 universal ethical principles
3.1 social contract and individual rights
level 2: conventional -individual does what is expected of them by others
2.2 social accord and system maintenance
2.1 interpersonal accord and conformity
level 1: pre-conventional -individual shows concern for self-interest and external rewards and punishments.
1.2 instrumental purpose and exchange
1.1 obedience and punishment
Cognitive biases related to moral judgement
-Cognitive Dissonance (when actions and self-image don't match)
-Moral Disengagement (convince ourselves that the questionable behavior was morally permissible: (1) served a worthy purpose, (2) driven by outside forces, (3) no one got hurt, (4) victims had it coming
-Motivated Forgetting: selective recall; remember events in a way that supports our decisions
-Implicit Prejudice:False association can lead to discrimination
What two factors play an important role in moral motivation?
-Rewards: Organizational reward systems need to be aligned with org. values
-Moral Emotions: elicited by the violation of moral standards
Five 'I' Format
Identify the problem
Investigate the problem
Innovate by generating a variety of solutions
Isolate the solution
Implement the solution
the four parts are meant to 'guide' managerial decisions to ensure that ethical considerations are taken into account
Lens I: Will this action serve a worthwhile purpose
Lens II: Is this action consistent with relevant ethical principles
Lens III: Does this action respect the legitimate claims of the people likely to be affected?
Lens IV: Do we have the power to take this action?
Monologue, Technical Dialogue, Dialogue
-Monologue: Self-interested; I-It focus
-Technical Dialogue: Neutral, focuses on information gathering
-Dialogue: Equal partners; I-Thou focus; focus on understanding rather than being understood
"I-It" versus "I-Thou" attitudes
-I-It: Treats others as objects, self-interested
-I-Thou: Treats others as unique human beings, open to understanding others views
What is mindfulness (versus mindlessness) and why is it beneficial to communication?
-Mindfulness: The process of devoting full attention to the task at hand; to being fully present in the moment
-Mindlessness: Inflexible, thoughtless activity that locks us into a single course of action
What are the pros and cons of the four listening styles?
Pro: Put priority on maintaining relationships
Con: Can get overly involved and overlook faults
Pro: Put a priority on task-management and organization
Con: Can come across as impatient and disinterested in relationships
Pro: Good at deciphering technical content; explore all sides of an issue
Con: Get caught up in the details and take a long time to make a decision
Pro : Value efficiency and don't waste time (theirs or other peoples)
Con: Tend to interrupt, look at clocks, and limit creativity by setting time limits
What is emotional intelligence?
-Emotional Intelligence:The ability to engage in sophisticated information processing about one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior
What are the 5 main components according to Daniel Goleman?
What is trust and why does it have a moral dimension
-A psychological state comprising the intentions to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behavior of another
-trust involves an obligation or duty, so it has a moral dimension. We have a moral responsibility to protect and promote the interests of those who rely on us (put their trust in us / make themselves vulnerable)
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