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Algorithms Unit 5
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (21)
Algorithm
a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.
Sequential Search
a method for finding a target value within a list.
by sequentially checking each element of the list for the target value until a match is found or until all the elements have been searched.
Linear Search
a method for finding a target value within a list.
by sequentially checking each element of the list for the target value until a match is found or until all the elements have been searched.
Binary Search
a method to search a sorted array by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half, starting with an interval covering the whole array. If the value of the search key is less than the item in the middle of the interval, narrow the interval to the lower half.
Semaphore
a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system.
Building Blocks for Algorithms
Iteration, Selection, Sequence
Sequencing
The specific order in which instructions are performed in an algorithm.
Iteration
Instructions to be repeated until a set condition is met.
Selection
Instructions performed that are determined by the outcome of a condition.
Pseudocode
a notation resembling a simplified programming language, used in program design.
Hypothesis
An idea or proposed explanation for why or how something occurs.
Model
A way to represent something, whether it be visual, mathematical, or other.
Simulation
An imitation of a situation or process.
Heuristic
Any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals.
Natural Language
A representation of an algorithm in plain language.
Prototype
a first, typical or preliminary model of something, especially a machine, from which other forms are developed or copied.
Polynomial Time
Algorithms that complete in n^x steps.
Reasonable Time
The amount of time that is fairly required to do whatever is required to be done, conveniently under the permitted circumstances.
Unreasonable Time
More than the amount of time that is fairly required to do whatever is required to be done, conveniently under the permitted circumstances.
Solvable Problem
A problem in which an algorithm can be constructed to answer "yes" or "no" for all inputs.
Unsolvable Problem
A problem in which an algorithm cannot be constructed to answer "yes" or "no" for all inputs.
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