APUSH study guide 2/15
Terms in this set (41)
Goals of the New South
modern capitalism, industrial growth, internal improvements (rise in education movement, moral regeneration)
Economy of New South
Self sufficient, embraced industrial development. Southerners went from sole production of cotton to enforcing diversity.
The new south and race
There was a tentative peace between whites and blacks, but with severe limitations. Began the introduction of separation, white southerners wanted blacks to keep to themselves. Start of "sharecropping."
Jim crow laws, segregation by race
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Case that upheld constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities. "separate but equal"
Movement of industry from north to south from the 1880s to 1950s
Rapid period of economic growth and soaring prosperity in the north and west. The U.S began to dominate in regards to power. Increase began after inflation. Reconstruction Era, Gilded Age, Progressive Era
Federal assistance for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad
By 1900 four transcontinental railroads connected eastern states with the pacific coast. 4/5 were built with assistance from the federal government through land grants.
Farm workers who plow the field
The homestead act
Signed by Lincoln, this act encouraged western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to complete 5 years of residence before ownership.
Barbed wire affect
Helped farmers fence in their land, protecting crops from livestock, closed cattle frontier when open range was cut off by homesteaders
Morrill land grant act
Act of donating public land, united states statutes that allow for creation of land grant colleges in US states using federal land sale proceedings.
Open range cattle ranching
Barbed wire confined cattle, preventing overgrazing
The Fort Laramie treaty and its effect on Native Americans
a treaty between the United States and various Indian nations regarding land ownership after the Chivington massacre occurred, Natives refused to agree to the treaty which limited their territory.
A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson
A non-fiction book that chronicles the injustices Native Americans faced
Major events of the Indian Wars / Pains Wars
Series of conflicts between Natives and settlers moving West. Many treaties were drafted to quell Natives and isolate them on government supported lands, but gold miners swore that if gold was to be found, they'd go anywhere. Natives also refused and tried to return home. More battles follow until the Natives are finally squashed and their food source is diminished
The Dawes severalty Act
(also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person's or group's culture come to resemble those of another group.
a leader of the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce Tribe, who became famous in 1877 for leading his people on an epic flight across the Rocky Mountains.
The Frontier Thesis / Turner thesis
the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process.
Events that brought about the end of patronage in the federal government
Spoils system, also called patronage system, practice in which the political party winning an election rewards its campaign workers and other active supporters by appointment to government posts and by other favors.
The Pendleton Federal Civil Service Act of 1883 provided the initial basis for the adoption of the merit system in the recruitment of federal officials, and by the late 20th century merit systems had almost completely replaced the spoils system at the federal, state, and city levels of government.
Gilded Age factions of the Republican Party
The major parties during the Gilded Age were the Republicans and Democrats (originally heavily southern).
Methods used by owners / Management in conflicts with labor
Unfair labor conditions resulted in workers strike, boycotts, and sabotages. In response to this, managment would enable lockkouts (reverse strike), yellow dog contracts (swearing against unions), scabs, etc.
captains of industry and their respective industries
J.P. Morgan: most powerful banker of the 1800's who used banking profits to gain control of major corporations
Andrew Carnegie: American steel industry, the Bessemer process, vertical integration
John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil Company, horizontal integration
Cornelius Vanderbilt: Railroads
Protestant movement dedicated to social justice for the urban poor
Advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems
Encouraged middle-class protestants to attack urban problems
Gospel of wealth
Government should not interfere with the accumulation of wealth, because wealthy use their resources to help the poor.
Survival of the fittest in terms of the economy. The poor were weak and unfit. Lassiez-faire
Captain of industry versus robber baron
Robber Baron: powerful nineteenth-century industrialists who were viewed as having used questionable practices to amass their wealth.
Captain of Industry: business leaders whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way.
The Knights of Labor
the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s, available to ALL workers
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Reasons for the growth of labor unions in the late 1800s
Workers became tired of long hours, poor wages, and unsafe working conditions, high immigration rates
horizontal integration vs vertical integration
Vertical: Method used by Carnegie where he bought up every process of steel manufacturing
Horizontal: Method used by Rockefeller where he bought up smaller companies under him to create a monopoly.
new immigrants vs. old immigrants
Old: Early 1800s, most were fluent in English and were literate, along with being skilled workers. They came to America by choice and were more willing to acclimate to their society, northern and western Europe
New: Late 1800s, they were illiterate and did not speak English. Many were unskilled workers and only came to America to escape religious persecution, economic failure, or tyrannical rulers. Southern and Eastern Europe
tightly organized groups of politicians that controlled the political parties in urban areas (Ex: Tweed)
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
the Sherman Antitrust Act
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was the first Federal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices
founded one of the first settlements in the United States, the Hull House (where middle class men and women would provide social services to poor immigrants) in Chicago, Illinois
an institution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community.
The Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act provided that Federal Government jobs be awarded on the basis of merit and that Government employees be selected through competitive exams not political affiliation.
The Bessemer Process
the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel
American cartoonist, best known for his attack on the political machine of William M. Tweed
Boss William Tweed
the "boss" of Tammany Hall, exposed for illegal dealings, became the symbol for civic corruption
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