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21 terms

Veterinary Nursing: Perianal Terminology, Examination and Care. Urine and Fecal Sample Collection

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Dyschezia
Difficulty Deficating
Hematochezia
Blood in the stool
Tenesmus
Straining to Defecate, associated with dyschezia. Often painful
Diarrhea
Loose Stool. Wide variety of causes, including; diet, parasites, bacteria, viruses, metabolic disease, etc. Treatment depends on cause.
Rectal Prolapse
Exteriorization of the Rectum. May become severely inflamed, necessitating that the fluid be drawn out of the tissue before it can be replaced in the animal.
Constipation
Dry hard stool that is often hard to pass. Dyschezia may be present.
Obstipation
Obstruction of the small intestine or colon, which makes it impossible for the animal to pass stool.
Enemas
Commercial enema solutions usually come in a tube with a nozzle, homemade solutions consisting of mild soap and water may be made in clinic.
Anal Sacs
Paired pouches located at the 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock positions beneath the skin and muscle ventro lateral to the anus.
Anal Glands
Secretory tissue in the lining of the anal sacs. Secrete oily, yellowish to pale brown foul-smelling fluid that is stored in the anal sacs.
Impacted Anal Sacs
Anal sacs packed with secretions
Inspissation
Rendering a fluid dry or thick by evaporation or absorpion.
External Expression Of Anal Sacs
Pressure is placed upon the sacs from the outside while a piece of gauze or paper towel is held over the duct openings to catch the secretions.
Internal Expression of Anal Sacs
The gloved, lubricated index finger is placed just inside the rectum to place pressure on each sac from the inside while the thumb is used to place pressure on the sac from the outside.
Anal Sacculitis
Inflammation/infection of the anal sacs.
Anal Gland Abcess
Sequestered pus.
Perianal Fistula
Draining tract through the skin from anal gland abcess.
Anal Sacculectomy
Surgical removal of anal sacs; remove both.
Anal Neoplasia
Primarily in dogs. Most common type is perianal adenoma (intact males are most predisposed). May be confused with perianal fistuals but this tends to also involve the growth of masses or nodules.
Free Catch
Catch urine in a receptical as it is being voided, avoid beginning and end of stream.
Cystocentesis
Insert a needle through abdominal wall into the bladder and withdraw urine into a syringe.