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Difficulty Deficating


Blood in the stool


Straining to Defecate, associated with dyschezia. Often painful


Loose Stool. Wide variety of causes, including; diet, parasites, bacteria, viruses, metabolic disease, etc. Treatment depends on cause.

Rectal Prolapse

Exteriorization of the Rectum. May become severely inflamed, necessitating that the fluid be drawn out of the tissue before it can be replaced in the animal.


Dry hard stool that is often hard to pass. Dyschezia may be present.


Obstruction of the small intestine or colon, which makes it impossible for the animal to pass stool.


Commercial enema solutions usually come in a tube with a nozzle, homemade solutions consisting of mild soap and water may be made in clinic.

Anal Sacs

Paired pouches located at the 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock positions beneath the skin and muscle ventro lateral to the anus.

Anal Glands

Secretory tissue in the lining of the anal sacs. Secrete oily, yellowish to pale brown foul-smelling fluid that is stored in the anal sacs.

Impacted Anal Sacs

Anal sacs packed with secretions


Rendering a fluid dry or thick by evaporation or absorpion.

External Expression Of Anal Sacs

Pressure is placed upon the sacs from the outside while a piece of gauze or paper towel is held over the duct openings to catch the secretions.

Internal Expression of Anal Sacs

The gloved, lubricated index finger is placed just inside the rectum to place pressure on each sac from the inside while the thumb is used to place pressure on the sac from the outside.

Anal Sacculitis

Inflammation/infection of the anal sacs.

Anal Gland Abcess

Sequestered pus.

Perianal Fistula

Draining tract through the skin from anal gland abcess.

Anal Sacculectomy

Surgical removal of anal sacs; remove both.

Anal Neoplasia

Primarily in dogs. Most common type is perianal adenoma (intact males are most predisposed). May be confused with perianal fistuals but this tends to also involve the growth of masses or nodules.

Free Catch

Catch urine in a receptical as it is being voided, avoid beginning and end of stream.


Insert a needle through abdominal wall into the bladder and withdraw urine into a syringe.

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