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Science, Textbook F, Unit 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (48)
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface. Stress builds up in rock through time, finally resulting in this.
The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface.
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth.
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another.
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface.
The name of the single landmass that formed during the Paleozoic Era and broke apart 200 million years ago. It gave rise to today's continents.
An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary.
A deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle.
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench ande back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
A piece of Earth's surface, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
Process by which when a fluid is heated, the warmer part of the mass will rise and the cooler portions will sink.
what something is made of
a substance (such as quartz, coal, petroleum, salt, etc.) that is naturally formed under the ground
melted (molten) rock that is still in the Earth
melted (molten) rock that has left a volcano
a solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
intrusive igneous rock
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface
a rock that forms from compressed or cemented layers of sediment
rock that has been changed by heat and pressure
the process by which metamorphic rock is formed
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
the type of weathering in which rock is mechanically broken into smaller pieces
process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
the grinding or scraping away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
Precipitation, such as rain, sleet, or snow, that contains a high concentration of acids, often because of the pollution of the atmosphere
Roots can break rocks as they grow
organisms that dig in the ground can weather the rock.
a type of chemical weathering that occurs when chemicals combine with oxygen. An example of this process is iron when it rusts.
acid in groundwater
As groundwater moves through spaces or cracks in rock, acids in the water can cause rocks to dissolve.
the place where land and a body of water meet
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
A bend in a river
A meander that has been cut off from the river
a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island
a glacier that forms in the mountains
an area along a river that forms from sediments deposited when the river overflows its banks
the material moved by erosion
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