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23 terms

Psy 241 Ch 11

STUDY
PLAY
An overall evaluation of your own self-worth best defines your
self-esteem
Albright is a self-described "Big Five" advocate when it comes to personality. Given this self-description, Albright would be best described as a _____ theorist.
trait
Cleo has received a high score on the conscientiousness scale of a personality test. This indicates that she would most likely be
well-organized and highly self-disciplined.
The Big Five traits
are genetically influenced.
The social learning perspective assumes that
personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience.
Easy temperament is characterized by
happiness and openness to new experience.
In Thomas and Chess's longitudinal study of temperament, the largest percent of infants were
classified as easy
Research by Kagan and his colleagues concluded that behavioral inhibition is _____ rooted.
biologically
Research on early temperament and later development suggests that
there is a meaningful relationship between early childhood temperament and later adult personality.
While Ginger has always thought of herself as the best dancer in the world, she has just begun to notice that some of the other kids in her class are better than she. This realization indicates that Ginger has begun to engage in
social comparison
Goodness-of-fit is best defined as
the extent to which the child's temperament is compatible with the social world to which the child must adapt.
As a typical three-year-old, when asked about his self-concept, Talisker's answer would most likely be,
I am small
The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the _____ period.
moratorium
Which best represents "identity diffusion status"?
Bea doesn't really know what she wants to be when she "grows up" and couldn't care less about even exploring the possibilities.
According to James Marcia, adolescent identity can be classified into one of four statuses that are based on the key issues of
crisis and commitment.
People living in individualistic cultures tend to define themselves as
individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society.
Kristi's mother finds four-year-old Kristi in the kitchen, mixing up a muffin mix and making a marvelous mess! Kristi announces, "Surprise! I'm making dinner!" Kristi's mother squelches her desire to yell at Kristi and with great control says, "Oh, how nice! Can I help?" She responds in this way because she has been studying Erik Erikson's theory in her psychology class and she knows that Kristi's behavior is typical of a child in the stage of
initiative versus guilt.
Sixty-year-old Irene has been a secretary for 30 years. Despite her advancing age, her typing skills remain excellent. This is in most part due to the fact that Irene continues to practice her typing every day. The Baltes' would suggest that the process of _____ is most responsible for Irene's continued high level of performance.
optimization
The phrase, "If only I had my life to live over again I would..." is best associated with Erikson's _____ psychosocial stage of development.
integrity versus despair
Which best summarizes the research on the "midlife crisis"?
Most middle-aged people experience some questioning of self during midlife, but few experience a true midlife crisis
According to Erikson, psychologically healthy middle-aged adults are most likely to
develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations.
Which factor is associated with a NEGATIVE retirement experience?
Involuntary retirement
What is the best advice concerning successful aging?
Elderly people should be encouraged to find a good fit between their personality, preferences, and the environment in which they live.