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Exam 1 Chapter 17 Part 2 and 3
Terms in this set (195)
T or F? No portion of the nervous system functions independently of the other parts.
T or F? Newer systems control older systems of the nervous system.
Are newer or older systems of the nervous system more vulnerable to injury?
What is the definition of spinal nerves?
The peripheral nerves that carry information to and from the spinal cord
Usually there are how many pairs of spinal nerves present? (or more)
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
How many sacral spinal nerves are there?
How many coccygeal spinal nerves are there?
How are nerve cells arranged in the grey matter?
Longitudinally in cell columns
Afferent sensory neurons in the gray matter are located in the (dorsal/ventrical) columns.
Efferent sensory neurons in the gray matter are located in the (dorsal/ventrical) columns.
What neurotransmitter systems are densely packed in circumscribed areas of brain which project to their target areas - lead to more circumscribed effects?
Cholinergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic
Which neurotransmitter systems are widely distributed?
Glutamatergic and GAGAergic systems
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
Regulating, adjusting, and coordinating vital visceral functions
T or F? The autonomic nervous system regulates digestion and respiration.
What are the two divisions of the ANS (autonomic nervous system)?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Does this describe the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
Maintains vital functions, responds when there is a critical threat to the integrity--"fight or flight" response, and motor/sensory
Does this describe the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
-Concerned with conservation of energy
-Maintenance of organ function during inactivity
Xerostomia is a very common condition, which involves: dry mouth feeling, ______________________, impaired quality of life, ______________________, and oral candidiasis.
Psychosocial distress, dental caries
T or F? Sjogren's syndrome
radiotherapy to the head and neck is an etiology of xerostomia.
Current therapies for xerostomia include stimulation of the?
Parasympathetic nervous system
The ______________ nervous system promotes the emptying of hollow organs.
Promotes transmission in postganglionic autonomic fibers
Promotes release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla
Promotes transmission in skeletal muscle fibers
Promotes the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system at cardiac function, smooth muscles, and glands
Promotes sympathetic thermoregulatory sweating
What are the 5 types of drugs that affect the parasympathetic nervous system?
Cholinergics, anticholinergics, ganglionic blocking agents, neuromuscular blocking agents, and ganglionic stimulating agents
What are the 4 types of drugs that affect the sympathetic nervous system?
Adrenergic receptors, adrenergic agonists, adrenergic antagonists, and skeletal muscle relaxants
Slide 24 of part 2
The neurotransmitter for preganglionic neurons for both ANS divisions
The neurotransmitter for the postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system
Neurotransmitters for the sympathetic postganglionic neurons
Norepinephrine and epinephrine
Noradrenergic projections modulate what four things?
Sleep cycles, appetite, mood, and cognition
The most frequent of all neurological problems
T or F? Most sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons are longer than parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurons.
Which type of adrenergic receptor does phenylephrine bind to?
Which types of adrenergic receptors does norepinephrine bind to?
Alpha1, alpha2, and beta1
T or F? Ephedrine and epinephrine bind to the same adrenergic receptors.
What adrenergic receptors does ephedrine and epinephrine bind to?
Alpha1, alpha2, beta1, and beta2
T or F? Cerebrovascular disease is due to blood vessel pathology.
Lesions on walls of vessels leading to the brain can lead to a _____________________________.
Occlusions of vessel lumen by thrombus or embolus can lead to a __________________.
What is another name for cerebrovascular accident?
A sudden, nonconvulsive focal neurological deficit
T or F? Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the US.
What age group is most at risk for strokes?
T or F? Strokes are more often seen in males.
Do strokes tend to run in families?
What are the three types of stroke?
Global hypoperfusion, ischemia, and hemorrhagic
What is the most common cause of hemorrhagic stroke?
T or F? Diabetes puts you at a higher risk for stroke.
T or F? Oral contraceptives put you at a higher risk for stroke.
A thrombotic stroke is a subtype of ____________ strokes.
What are the three clinical types of thrombotic strokes?
TIAs, stroke-in-evolution, and completed stroke
Occurs with blockage of blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus
T or F? Occlusive strokes may be permanent of temporary.
T or F? Transient ischemic attacks last for only a few minutes, and always less than 24 hours.
T or F? All neurological deficits resolve after a transient ischemic attack (TIA)
What three things can cause a thrombus formation?
Atherosclerosis, arteritis, and hypertension
What are the causes of a TIA?
Thrombus formation, vasospasm, and others including hypotension and anemia
T or F? Without treatment, 80% have a recurrence in symptoms, and 1/3 go on to have a full stroke within 5 years
What does TCA stand for?
Thrombotic cerebrovascular accident
T or F? A neurologic symptom caused by cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage is commonly called a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke.
What is ischemia caused by? with or without infarct
A temporary clot
T or F? A TIA is a symptom of developing thrombosis.
Ophthalmic branch of internal carotid artery - amaurosis fugax - ?
Slide 36 of part 2
Involves permanent damage to brain due to ischemia, hypoxia and necrosis of neurons
Thrombotic cerebrovascular accident (TCA)
T or F? TCAs are the most common form of CVAs.
What four things can cause a thrombotic cerebrovascular accident?
Atherosclerosis associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, vascular disease, and trauma
T or F? TCAs may take years to develop, often asymptomatic until major narrowing of arterial lumen.
T or F? Anything that increases systemic B.P. will exacerbate symptoms (60 % during sleep) of a thrombotic cerebral accident.
T or F? In a thrombotic cerebrovascular accident, the area affected initially is greater than damage due to edema.
What is the second most common CVA?
Fragments that break from a thrombus outside the brain, or occasionally air, fat, clumps of bacteria, or tumors
What are some of the common causes of an embolic stroke?
Atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, endocarditis, and rheumatic heart disease
T or F? An embolic stroke has a slow onset of symptoms.
T or F? Individuals who experience an embolic stroke often have a second stroke.
What is the third most common type of CVA and the most lethal?
Many times a hemorrhagic stroke causes bleeding into the _______________ or ________________________.
Cerebrum, subarachnoid space
A subdural hematoma is caused by what type of bleeding?
How long does it normally take a subdural hematoma to develop?
Several hours to days
An epidural hematoma is caused by what type of bleeding?
What are side effects of an epidural hematoma?
Pupil/vision problems and projectile vomit
T or F? The onset of a hematoma is less rapid than embolic CVA, evolving over an hour or two.
Which of the following statements is correct?
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) seldom last more than a few minutes and never more than 24 hours
In ischemic stroke, the neurologic deficit has been present more than 24 hours and may be progressive, stable, or resolving.
All of the above
Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened _________________ ruptures.
What two types of weakened blood vessels usually cause a hemorrhagic stroke?
Aneurysms and arteriovenous malformation
What is an aneurysm?
A weak spot in arterial wall
A tangle of blood vessels in the brain, which directly diverts blood from the arteries to the veins
What is sometimes referred to as a mini stroke?
A transient ischemic attack
A (acute/chronic) subdural hematoma is a clot of blood that develops between the surface of the brain and the dura mater.
A (acute/chronic) subdural hematoma is an old clot of blood on the surface of the brain beneath its outer covering
What are three causes of subdural and epidural hematomas?
Ruptured aneurysms, vascular malformations, and chronic hypertension
Which of the following are cellular elements of the brain microvasculature that compose the BBB?
a) Endothelial cells
b) Astrocyte end-feet
d) All of the above
Permit the passage of current-carrying ions through small openings called gap junctions that penetrate the cell junction of adjoining cells and allow current to travel in either direction
Involve special presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane structures, separated by a synaptic cleft
What are the two types of synapses found in the nervous system?
Electrical and chemical
Combination of a neurotransmitter with a receptor site causes partial depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
Combination of a transmitter with a receptor site is inhibitory in that it causes the local nerve membrane to become hyperpolarized and less excitable
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
T or F? Most of the fast EPSPs are mediated by acetylcholine acting at nicotinic postsynaptic receptors.
The actions of 5-HT at the 5-HT3 serotonergic receptor subtype behaves much like fast
What does palsy mean?
Weakness or problems with using the muscles
_______________________ is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a person's ability to control his/her muscles.
T or F? Cerebral palsy is progressive and can be transmitted genetically.
F (neither of those)
Cerebral palsy is due to an anoxic, metabolic or _____________ brain injury during birth resulting in postural deficiencies and voluntary movement complications.
What is the most common motor disability in childhood?
CP (cerebral palsy)
Depending on which areas of the brain are affected, what are the three types of movement disorders that can happen with cerebral palsy?
Spasticity, dyskinesia, and ataxia
Poor balance and coordination
What is the most common form of CP?
Does spactic CP affect the pyramidal system or extrapyramidal?
Does dyskinetic CP affect the pyramidal system or extrapyramidal?
Does ataxic CP affect the pyramidal system or extrapyramidal?
____________ cerebral palsy affects about 80% of people with CP.
T or F? Spastic CP causes increased muscle tone.
What type of spastic CP causes muscle stiffness is mainly in the legs, with the arms less affected or not affected at all?
People with spastic diplegia might have difficulty ___________.
This type of spastic CP affects only one side of a person's body; usually the arm is more affected than the leg.
Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form of spastic CP and affects what?
All four limbs, the trunk and the face
Can patients with spastic quadriplegia walk usually?
T or F? Quadriparesis often have other developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability and seizures.
Is a disease in which your immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers your nerves
T or F? Multiple sclerosis affects both sensory and motor functions in no pattern.
Are more males or females affected by multiple sclerosis?
Slide 17 of part 3
Is there a cure for multiple sclerosis?
T or F? Treatments for multiple sclerosis can help modify the course of disease.
_____________________________________ is characterized by pain, swelling, and vasomotor dysfunction of an extremity.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)
What is a classic symptom of RSD?
Pain out of proportion to the degree of injury
Surgical _______________________ may be considered in patients with refractory RSD that had initially responded to sympathetic blockade.
T or F? Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment option for reflex sympathetic dystrophy
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is what type of disease?
A motor neuron disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is often called what?
Lou Gehrig's disease
Is a neurological disease that causes muscle weakness and impacts physical function and is a type of motor neuron disease that causes nerve cells to gradually break down and die
Lou Gehrig's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare neuromuscular disease that involves progressive destruction of the (anterior/posterior) horn motor neurons and fibers of the (pyramidal/extrapyramidal) tract.
As the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progresses, the sufferer loses the ability to ____________, swallow, and ______________.
What are four causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
Chemical imbalance (increase in glutamate), disorganized immune response, gene mutation, and misfolded protein
Mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is in _____% of familial ALS
What is a drug treatment available to treat ALS?
What are the three types of peripheral nerves?
Sensory, motor, and autonomic
Where peripheral neuropathy may affect one nerve
Where peripheral neuropathy affects two or more nerves in different areas
Where peripheral neuropathy may affect many nerves
Slide 28 and 29 of part 3
Are inflammatory diseases of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Meningitis and encephalitis
T or F? Corticosteroids are used to treat meningitis and encephalitis.
Guillain-Barre syndrome is acquired demyelinating (mono/poly)neuropathy.
T or F? Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute, progressive, and severe disease.
In Guillain-Barre syndrome, the ___________________________________ attacks a part of the peripheral nervous system.
Body's immune system
What are the first symptoms of Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Weakness or tingling sensations in the legs
What is a treatment option for Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Serotonin is linked to many brain functions due to the widespread serotonergic projections and the ___________________ of the serotonergic receptors.
Modulation of serotonergic receptors and the reuptake site is beneficial in the treatment of ___________, depression, and ______________________.
(Blockade/stimulation) of serotonin receptors in the area postrema decreases nausea and emesis.
Hallucinogens, such as LSD, modulate serotonergic neurons via serotonergic ________________________.
Are there are serotonin receptors in the heart?
Which of the following is correct about Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome)?
A It is a multi-symptom condition affects upper extremities
B is a progressive disease of the Autonomic Nervous System
C The pain is characterized as constant and extremely intense
D All of the above
T or F? The amygdala is a part of the limbic system.
Is the hippocampus a part of the limbic system?
Damage to the hippocampus can result in what type of amnesia?
Does serotonin ruin or improve your mood?
What happens if there is a serotonin deficiency?
Mood swings: depression and anxiety, restricting, binging and purging
What three things does the serotonin modulate of the limbic system?
Mood, motivation, and memory
T or F? Serotonin is also known as 5-hydroxytryptophan.
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are all what class of drug?
What does BCAA stand for?
Branched chain amino acid
What are the three BCAAs?
Leucine, isoleucine, and valine
T or F? Fatty acids free tryptophan from albumin in the blood.
T or F? A high gut microbiota increases levels of serotonin and tryptophan.
F (little or no gut microbiota)
Diet influences what four neurotransmitter availabilities?
Serotonin, actylcholine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
Too little serotonin in the brain is thought to play a role in _______________.
Too much serotonin can lead to excessive nerve cell activity, causing a potentially deadly collection of symptoms known as _______________________.
The greatest risks of serotonin syndrome are by what two things?
Taking antidepressants and by taking two or more drugs that influence serotonin
Where are the main dopamine cells located?
T or F? There are also dopamine cells in the retina.
T or F? There are also dopamine cells in the olfactory bulb.
T or F? There are also dopamine cells in the hypothalamus.
Substantia nigra DA cells also contain ______________ in humans and some primates (not pigmented in rodents).
The amygdala and ____________________ are involved in memory/learning.
Dopamine affects several brain functions primarily by modulation of _________________________________.
Other neurotransmitter systems
Decreased dopaminergic functioning leads to Parkinson disease and (pyramidal/extrapyramidal) side effects.
What are three examples of degenerative diseases?
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia affects ____________ complex brain systems.
What are some positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorder
What is the current theory for the cause of schizophrenia?
Abnormal balance among neuronal circuits or pathways
Has schizophrenia increased or decreased in recent years?
Does the pathology of schizophrenia involve increased or decreased size of ventricles?
Does the pathology of schizophrenia involve an increase or decrease in cortical grey matter?
In schizophrenic patients, it has been found that the (antero/dorso)lateral prefrontal cortex has diminished activation.
T or F? A current theory is that schizophrenia results from a deficiency of glutamatergic innervation relative to dopaminergic innervation.
In schizophrenia research there is evidence for NRG involvement in astrocyte biology might implicate evidence for NRG involvement in astrocyte biology might implicate neuregulins in formation or stabilization of central synapse _________________ in formation or stabilization of central synapses
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