71 terms

Nutrition Chapter 1

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Nutrient
A substance in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes
Essential Nutrient
A nutrient that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions
What are the Essential Nutrients?
Carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
water
Vitamins
Minerals
What are the Macronutrient essential Nutrients?
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Water
What are the Micronutrient essential Nutrients?
Vitamins
Minerals
Calorie
A unit of measure used to express the amount of energy provided by food
Nutrient Density
A measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content
Fortification
The addition of nutrients to foods
Dietary Supplement
A product designed to supplement the diet; may include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances
-Source of vitamins and minerals
Phytochemical
A substance found in plant foods that is not an essential nutrient buy may have health promoting properties
Zoochemical
A substance found in animal food that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties
Functional food
A food that has health-promoting properties beyond basic nutritional functions because of the complex mixtures of nutrients and other chemicals
Macronutrients
Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts
Micronutrients
Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts
How many kcal/g of Carbohydrates and Proteins
4 kcal/g
How many kcal/g of Fats?
9 kcal/g
How many kcal/g of Alcohol
7 kcal/g
-but not essential
How many kcal/g of Water
0 kcal/g
-essential but no calories
What are the food groups?
Grains
Vegetables
Fruits
Dairy
Protein Foods
Organic Compound
A substance that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen
Carbohydrates contain
Starches, sugars, and fiber
Lipids contain
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
and most of them do not dissolve in water
Proteins contain
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What % does water make up of our bodies?
60%
Amino acids are
Building blocks of protein
What is a kind of lipid?
Oil
Butter
Nuts
Meat
Vitamin
An organic compound needed in the diet in small amounts to promote and regulate the chemical reactions and processes needed for growth, reproduction, and the maintenance of health
Mineral
An element needed by the body to maintain structure and regulate chemical reaction and body processes
EX: Calcium
Vitamins and Minerals jobs?
-Essential for metabolism
-Many assist enzymes to accelerate chemical reactions
-essential to body processes
-Essential in building/maintaining structures
Macronutrients + Micronutrients
Optimale cell function and whole body health
What nutrient is the most important?
The one you are missing all together or do not have enough of
Energy-yielding nutrients
Nutrients that can be metabolized to produce energy in the body
-Carbs
-Fats
-Proteins
Protein and water
Make up the structure of the muscles
Protein and Carbs
Form the cartilage that cushions our joints
Lipids proteins and water
Most of body weight
Lipids and Protein
Make hormones
Nutrients do 3 things
1) Regulate biochemical reactions that release energy contained in macronutrients
2)Form Structure
3)Regulate Body Processes
Energy is used to
Maintain body functions, fuel physical work and repair the body, and reproduction
If you consume more energy than needed
The extra calories are stored as fat
Metabolism
All reactions of the body
Homeostasis
Regulation of each physiological or biochemical parameter with narrow limits or range
-Each nutrient contributes to homeostasis
Hormone
stimulate or inhibit various body processes
Malnutrition
A condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal
-Long term effects
Undernutrition
Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake below that which meets nutritional needs
Diseases called by malnutrition
Diabetes
Stroke
Cancer
Heart Disease
Over nutrition
Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake in excess of that is optimal for health
High sodium contributes to
High blood pressure
Excess intake of saturated fats contributes to
Heart disease
High in red meat/saturated fats/low in fruits/veggies/and fiber
Certain cancers
Genes you inherit give you
A greater or lesser tendency to develop conditions
Diet/lifestyle
What you consume/the amount of exercise you get can increase or decrease your risk of developing nutrition-related diseases
Nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics
The study of how diet affects our genes and individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients of other food components on health
Your actual risk of disease results from
The interplay between the genes you inherit and the diet and lifestyle choices you make
One food=
Calories&multiple nutrients+healthful, non-nutritive compounds
-THERE IS NO SINGLE PERFECT FOOD
Healthy diet include
Whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, -high in fiber
-moderate in fat sugar, and sodium, -low in unhealthy fats
3 key things to a healthy diet
1)Variety of foods
2)Balance your choices
3)Moderation (practice)
Variety
Choosing Nutrient-dense foods from different food groups and diverse foods from within each food group
-Choosing different foods not only each day but each week
What are the 5 food groups
Vegetables
grains
fruits
dairy
protein foods
Balance
If you eat bad for one meal, eat healthy for the next.
-balanced diets balances the calories you take in with the calories you burn in your daily activities so weight stays at a healthy range
Practice Moderation
Eat enough, but not too much
-Not having too many calories, too much fat, ect.
-Help maintain a healthy weight/some chronic diseases
Expanding the understanding of nutritional processes
Create greater understanding of how nutrition influences health and disease
steps in the scientific method in order
1)Observation
2)Hypothesis
3)Experiment
4)Theory
A well-conducted experiment requires
1) Quantifiable data
2)Appropriate experimental population: large enough & pertinent to the question
3) Proper controls: all things being equal except the experimental treatment
Epidemiology
The branch of science that studies health and disease trends and patterns in population
Clinical Trials
Test hypotheses from epidemiology studies that explore the health effects of altering people's diets
Animal Studies
Not the same as human
Biochemistry and molecular biology
Laboratory-bases techniques can be used to study nutrient functions in the body
-Easiest to control
Peer-review Process
Review of the study done by experts in the field determine whether experimental results should be published in scientific journals
How to know if something is reliable
1)Does the info make sense?
2)What is the source
3)is it selling something
4)has it stood the test of time
Why is variety important?
Different foods provide different nutrients and health-promoting substances as well as variety of tastes
Quantifiable data
Anything you can count