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AP Psychology Famous People
Terms in this set (52)
Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin of the species.
Introspection-psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science). Father of modern or scientific psychology.
Structuralism was the approach and introspection was the methodology.
Established first psychology laboratory.
Founder of behaviorism & generalization.
Applied classical conditioning skills to advertising.
Most famous for Little Albert experiment, where he first trained Albert to be afraid of rats and then to generalize his fear to all small, white animals.
Neo-Freudian who believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formations.
Believed that people are primarily searching for self-esteem and achieving the ideal self.
Disciple of Freud who extended his theories. Believed in a collective unconscious as well as a personal unconscious that is
aware of ancient archetypes which we inherit from our ancestors and we see in myths (young warrior, wise man of the
village, loving mother, etc.).
Coined the terms introversion and extroversion.
Neo-Freudian, believed with Freud's "personal unconscious" but also though humans have a collective unconscious - a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history. Also studied persona - different "masks" we wear in social situations.
Three levels of traits:
1. Cardinal: dominant trait that characterized your life
2. Central trait: common to all people
3. Secondary trait: surfaces in some situations and not others
Father of Rational Emotive Therapy, which focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotion (like, "if I fail the AP exam my life will come to an end"). Helped patients overcome unrealistic expectations - taught to eliminate self-defeating thoughts while focusing on those that were beneficial.
Humanist psychologist who said we have a series of needs which must be met.
You can't achieve the top level, self-
actualization, unless the previous levels have been achieved; from bottom to top the levels are physiological needs, safety, belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization. Hierarchy of Needs.
Lower needs dominate and individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied.
Founded Humanistic Psychology, which focused on the individual and self directed choices that influenced behavior.
Humanistic psychologist who believed in unconditional positive regard.
People will naturally strive for self-actualization and high self-esteem, unless society taints them. Reflected back clients thoughts so that they developed a self-awareness or their feelings.
Client-centered therapy - unconditional positive regard by supporting the client regardless of what is said.
Operant conditioning-- techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior. Skinner box.
Believed psychology was not scientific enough.
Wanted it to be believed everyone is born tableau rosa (blank slate); NOT concerned with unconscious or cause, only behavior.
Father of classical conditioning - an unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response, but with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Also spontaneous recovery.
Believed there are an infinite number of sentences in a language and that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language. Words and concepts are learned but the brain is hardwired for grammar and language. Theory of generative grammar emphasizes universal grammar. Linguistic knowledge was innate.
Four-state theory of cognitive development-- sensorimotor (object permanence and stranger anxiety), preoperational (egocentrism), concrete operational (conservation), and formal operational (abstract concepts).
Two basic processes (assimilation and accommodation) work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth.
People evolve through 8 states over the life span. Each state is marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I".
Neo-Freudian, most famous for stages in psychosocial development, which are based on Freud's five stages.
His theory states that there are 3 levels of moral reasoning (pre-conventional, conventional, post-conventional) and each level can be divided into 2 stages.
Pre-conventional (acted whether they would fain rewards or punishment), conventional morality (actions that uphold social rules in intent to be liked by others and gain approval), and post-conventional (abstract reasoning for their actions).
Personality is determined to a large extent by genes.
Used the terms extroversion (introversion) and emotional stability or neuroticism (instability).
Stated that intelligence was largely inherited and believed that all personality traits could be summarized by two dimensions.
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer
Believed that to experience emotions one must be physically aroused and must then label the arousal.
Developed two-factor theory of emotion which simply states that emotions are comprised of physical arousal and a cognitive label. They also said that emotional experience requires conscious interpretation of the arousal.
His hypothesis is that language determines the way we think. One's language and grammar patterns shape one's view of reality - linguistic relativity.
Triarchic theory of intelligence-  academic problem-solving intelligence  practical intelligence  creative intelligence.
Contributed to the idea that there is more to creativity than that which intelligence tests reveals.
Theory of multiple intelligences.
Opposed Spearman's ideas of one general intelligence. Believed there are eight 'smarts', which are visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal (others), intrapersonal (oneself), linguistic, and logical-mathematical.
Observational learning- allows you to profit immediately from the mistakes and successes of others.
His experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then observed children whom watched begin to exhibit many of the same behaviors. Social learning theory.
Law of effect-the principle that behavior followed by favorable consequences becomes more likely and vice versa.
General IQ tests. Hired by French public school system to find children that needed special help. First used the IQ formula: (mental age/physical age) * 100. Influenced the Stanford-Binet Test.
Revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children. Invented Stanford-Binet IQ Test. Believed that children who scored high on his IQ tests were "gifted" and likely to become society's leaders in adulthood.
Established an intelligence test especially for adults (Weschler Intelligence Test for Adults).
Found that specific mental talents were highly correlated.
Concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he label "g" for general intelligence.
Developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot Test where the subject reads the inkblots and projects to the observer aspects of their personality, reflect unconscious parts of the personality that "project" onto the stimuli.
Conducted the famous Standford Prison Experiment.
Studied the power of social roles to influence peoples behavior.
Proved people's behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play.
Experiment had to be stopped because it got out of control.
Conducted a hospital experiment to test the diagnosis that hospitals make on patients. Doctors can't distinguish between the sane from the insane in such environment.
Wanted to see the impact of behavior on being a patient. Proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care would not be very good in a mental hospital setting.
Tested validity of psychiatric diagnosis of insanity.
Study of conformity.
Experiment had a subject unaware of his situation to test if he would conform if all the members of a
group gave an obviously incorrect answer.
Conducted a study on obedience when he had a subject shock a patient to the extent that they would be seriously injuring the patient.
Proved that people will do things mainly because an authority figure had prompted the teacher to do so.
Studied theory of attachment in infant Rhesus monkeys. Also experimented on the effects of social isolation in young
monkeys and observed that they become severely emotionally disturbed and never recover fully.
Raised monkeys with two artificial mothers. One represented nourishment, other contact/comfort. Discovered monkeys would feed from harsh mom with the food, but quickly return to soft cloth mom for a safe/secure base. Humans act the same way, we are social creatures who need contact to thrive.
Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious. Id (pleasure), ego (reality principle), superego (social morals); believed innate drives for sex and aggression are the primary motives for our behavior and personalities. Theories include the ideas of the stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital).
Often know as the father of modern psychology and psychoanalysis. Believed that the unconscious determines everything we do. Believed that dreams, free association, and hypnosis could reveal the unconscious mind.
Criticized Freud and said that personality is continually molded by current fears and impulses rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences.
Saw humans as craving love and social interaction to drive their needs.
Neo-Freudian, named parental indifference the true culprit behind neurosis and said the key to understanding this phenomenon is the child's perception - children can overcome Oedipus Complex if they have loving parents.
Womb envy - men's innate jealousy of a woman's ability to give birth
Learned helplessness is the giving up reaction that occurs from the experience that whatever you do you cannot change your situation. One will start to act helpless in a situation if they find that they can't stop the harmful stimulus, even if they do have the power to stop it.
First to conduct scientific studies on memory and forgetting.
Forgetting Curves: We forget the most information within the first 20 minutes, then an hour, then a day. Is exponential.
Pioneered the first study on JND (just noticeable difference), which become Weber's Law.
The JND between stimuli is a constant proportion of the intensity of the standard stimulus.
Sensation and difference thresholds.
Theory proposes that the terminally ill pass through a sequence of 5 stages- denial,
anger/resentment, bargaining, depression, acceptance.
Theory that facial expressions are universal. Studied facial expressions and how they reflected emotions. He believed there were six basic emotions that were universal and expressed in the same way in any culture. They are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.
Most famous for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation" Experiment. The child's reactions are observed while playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. The effects vary in stressfulness.
The father of cognitive therapy, specializes in clinical depression. Developed the cognitive triad of depression: people who are depressed have negative thoughts about themselves, their future, and the world in which they live.
Physician that reported after damage to specific area of the left frontal lobe, Broca's Area, a person would have trouble forming words but still be able to comprehend speech
Best known for discovery of 16 underlying personality traits and his methods for measuring the traits are known as the 16 personality factor model and the 16 PF questionnaire. Used factor analysis.
A railroad worker who had a large iron rod go completely through his left frontal lobe while working. Became angry after accident. Concluded that specific areas of the brain affect personality.
Best known for his research on hypnosis. Creator of the hypnosis theory of a "hidden observer" where a person undergoing hypnosis can observe his or her pain without feeling any actual suffering.
Wrote the first influential textbook on psychology, called Principles of Psychology (1890), a leading psychologist in the Functionalism movement, which emphasized the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness.
William James and Carl Lange
Came up with the theory that proposes that emotions occur because of physiological reactions to event. This means that based on how your body physically reacts to an event, your mind will decide the emotion you are feeling.
Discovered taste aversion when looking at effects of radiation on rats. Rats became nauseous from the radiation, but since the taste of water from a plastic bottle was accidentally paired with this radiation, the rats developed an aversion for this water.
Known for her work in the study of false memory formation and the misinformation effect. Famous for her car-crash experiment - After viewing a video, those who were asked the question with the smashed wording were much likely to "remember" seeing broken glass in a later question (in reality, no glass had been broken in the accident). They also remembered the car as driving much faster.
Rediscovered imprinting (phase-sensitive learning) which famously included acting as the mother figure for Mallard Ducks. There is a critical period for attachment.
Responsible for the idea of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). First is the "alarm reaction" where we prepare for "fight or flight". Second is resistance, where the resistance of stress is built. After a long duration of stress, the body enters the third stage - exhaustion. This last stage is most hazardous to your health and has the long term effects.
Most famous for his studies on behavioral psychology, studied latent learning. He is known for his study of learning with rats in mazes, rats who run the maze without a reward still learn how to complete the maze.
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