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Chapter 14 Acids and Bases
Terms in this set (53)
Properties of acids
taste sour, contain H and some react with active metals to liberate H2 gas, react with bases to produce salts and water, are electrolytes, change the color of dyes known as "acid-base indicators" (litmus paper, phenolphtalein)
Arrhenius or traditional acid
chemical compound that contains H and ionizes in aqueous solutions to form hydronium ions (H3O+)
a molecule or ion that is a proton donor (donating a hydrogen ion)
an electron pair acceptor
an acid that can donate one proton per molecule
an acid that can donate two protons per molecule
an acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule
an acid that can donate three protons per molecule
an acid that is a strong electrolyte and ionizes 100% in an aqueous solution
an acid that is a weak electrolyte and some ions will recombine to form the acid in aqueous solutions (typically organic acids, doesn't 100% ionize in aqueous solution)
an organic compound that contains an acid group, the carboxyl group (-COOH)
an acid composed of H and a second element
an acid that is composed of H, O, and a third element. The H & O are covalently bonded and are called the hydroxyl group
Property of bases
taste bitter, feel slippery, change color of indicators, react with acids to produce a salt and water neutralization rxn, are electrolytes
Arrhenius or traditional base
substance that contains OH- ions and dissociates to give OH- ions in aqueous solutions
a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
electron pair donor
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH
Potassium Hydroxide KOH
Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2
Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2
a solution that contains OH- from a soluble base
the double replacement rxn between an acid and a base that results in a salt and water
Lewis acid-base reaction
the formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor
Bronsted acid-base reaction
protons are transferred from one reaction to another
Bronsted-Lowry rxn has ______ acids and bases.
the species formed by the addition of a proton to a base
species that remains after an acid has given up a proton
If a Bronsted acid gives up a proton, the remainder of the acid is capable of _______ that proton and becomes a conjugate _____.
adding back ; base
The stronger the acid, the _____ the conjugate base.
The stronger the base, the _____ the conjugate acid.
Proton transfer rxn favor the production of the _____ acid and the ____ base.
weaker ; weaker
any species that can react as either an acid or a base
a metal oxide that reacts with water to form an alkaline solution
a non-metal oxide that reacts with water to form an acid
have bonding between ionic and covalent bonds; have behavior between that of acidic oxides and basic oxides
In the presence of a strong acid, an amphoteric oxide acts as a _____. In the presence of a strong base, it acts as an ____.
Self-ionization or autoprotolysis
process whereby pure water ionizes itself to a slight degree
Ionization constant of water
Kw = (H3O+)(OH-)
For water, Kw =
When (H3O+) = (OH-), the solution is _____.
When (H3O+) > (OH-), the solution is _____.
When (H3O+) < (OH-), the solution is _____.
the amount of H3O+ ions in a solution
pH < 7 is ____.
pH = 7 is _____.
pH > 7 is _____.
the amount of OH- ions in a solution
equation for pOH
the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of known concentration that is required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration (used to compare chemically equivalent volumes of acid/base solutions)
solution that contains a precisely known concentration of a solute (needed to titrate another solution)
point at which the pH changes rapidly and there is an equivalent quantity of H3O+ and OH- present
the point at which the indicator changes color
Indicators that have a pH color change around 7 are good for _______ titrations b/c the salt produced has a pH around 7.
strong acid/strong base
Indicators with a pH color change lower than 7 are good for ______.
strong acid/weak base
Indicators with pH color change higher than 7 are good for ______.
weak acid/ strong base