53 terms

Glencoe World History Chapter 12&17

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geocentric
earth-centered
Ptolemaic system
the geocentric model of the universe that prevailed in the Middle Ages; named after the astronomer Ptolemy, who lived in Alexandria during the second century
Nicholas Copernicus
A mathematician who discovered the heliocentric conception of the solar system
heliocentric
sun-centered
Johannes Kepler
Provided the scientific proof that Copernicus and Galileo were unable to provide. To prove the Sun was the center of the solar system (universe to them)
Galileo Galilei
used a telescope to discover many things about the solar system; tried for heresy by the Catholic church because his beliefs contradicted the Bible. Also suggested that heavenly bodies were composed of material substance. Sentenced to house arrest for ever.
Sir Isaac Newton
defined the three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies; discovered gravity: and the theory of the universal clock
universal clock
Theory used to explain that the universe could be opened up and explained through science, instead of through faith. Thus separating God from the interactions of the universe.
Margaret Cavendish
wrote "Observations Upon Experimental Psychology"; states that we do not have complete power over the universe
Maria Winkelmann
most famous female astronomer; discovery of a comet
rationalism
a system of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
Scientific Method
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world. Created by Galileo and "Perfected" by Bacon.
Francis Bacon
believed that instead of relying on the ideas of ancient authorities, scientists should use inductive reasoning to learn about nature; helped invent the Scientific Method; believed that man could use science to increase his control and power over nature to benefit industry, agriculture, and trade
inductive reasoning
the doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles
Enlightenment
eighteenth century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
John Locke
Tabula Rosa; everyone is born with a blank mind; theory of knowledge; Practical understanding of the Social Contract, and major influence on the U.S. Declaration of Independence.
philosophe
French for "philosopher"; applied to all intellectuals--i.e. writers, journalists, economists, and social reformers-during the Enlightenment
Montesquieu
"The Spirit of the Laws"; tried to use scientific method to find natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings; identified 3 types of governments: republics, despotism, and monarchies; invented separation of powers.
separation of powers
a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
Voltaire
greatest literary figure of the Enlightenment; well-known for criticism of Christianity and religious toleration; "Treatise on Toleration"..."all men are brothers under God."; deism...God had created the universe...believed in Newtons idea of the universe was like a clock.
deism
an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. That separated God from the universe. Made god more of an observer, rather than a puppet master.
Diderot
Helped write/create the "Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades"...purpose was to change the general way of thinking...became a major weapon for religious toleration;
Adam Smith
wrote "The Wealth of Nations"; state should not interfere in economic matters; invented the invisible hand theory and modern capitalism. 3 basic roles in government: protecting society from invasion (army), defending citizens from injustice (the police); and keeping up certain public works that private individuals could not afford
laissez-faire
literally, "let the people do what they want," the concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone
Cesare Beccaria
"On Crimes and Punishment"...punishments should not exercise in brutality; "Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?" Believed in a court system which reforms instead of only punishing. Paved the way for modern Norwegian penal systems.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
wrote "The Social Contract"...liberty is achieved by following what is best for the "general will" of the governed because the general will represents what is best for the community...some individual liberty is sacrificed for the well being of the whole. "Emile" education should foster, and not restrict, children's natural instincts; emotions as well as reason were important to human development; did not exactly practice what he preached, and did not believe in women's rights. And believed humans were pure until interacting with each other.
Mary Wollstonecraft
founder of the modern European and American movement for women's rights. As well as equality for all peoples. Wrote two widely popular books. "A Vindication for the Rights of Women" and "A Vindication for the Rights of Men"
salon
the elegant drawing rooms of great urban houses where, in the eighteenth century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials, and wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes, helping to spread the ideas of the Enlightenment...often the responsibility of the gatherings belonged to women
John Wesley
Anglican minister; leader of the Methodism movement. Preach with the heart, and fill the hears with the warmth of Jesus.
Bach
a renowned organist and composer; one of the greatest composers of all time; wrote baroque
Mozart
child prodigy; "The Marriage of Figaro," "The Magic Flute," "Don Giovanni"...three of the world's greatest operas; wrote classical
enlightened absolutism
a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers (ultimately failing in the end) Included Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Joseph II the not so Great.
Frederick the Great
one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs in the eighteenth century; enlarged Prussian army; abolished use of torture; granted limited freedom of speech and press and religious tolerance; invaded Austrian Silesia.
Joseph II
Maria Theresa's son, who made a reform system that failed miserably.
Catherine the Great
ruler of Russia; favored enlightened reforms; but did very little; favored the nobility to keep power, which led to rebellion from the peasants, which she often ruthlessly put down. Expanded Russia's might and territory.
Seven Years' War
After an attack on Maria Theresa from the king of Prussia (War of the Austrian Succession), Maria fought back by winning France as an ally instead of being Prussia's ally...Russia sided with Austria, and Britain sided with Prussia...led to a worldwide war; Austria accepted Prussia's rule of Silesia, French withdrew and left India to the British with the Treaty of Paris (which also caused the French to transfer lands east of the Mississippi to England...Spain gave Spanish Florida to the British...French gave their Louisiana Territory to the Spanish)...Great Britain was now the world's greatest colonial power
Constitution of the USA
Successful American document which created a federal system in which power would be shared between the national government and the state governments.
Articles of Confederation
America's first constitution. Created a weak central government.
social contract theory
the concept proposed by Rousseau that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will, and all individuals should be forced to abide by the general will since it represents what is best for the entire community. Also gave people the right to overthrow its government if it interferes with the general will of the people.
federal system
a form of government in which power is shared between the national government and state governments
Henry VIII
Infamous English King who is most known for going through several wives, as well as separating England from the Catholic Church and creating the Church of England in its place.
Forced Freedom
Is a concept where a people of a nation will give up some personal liberties/freedoms for the security of the general population/will.
Ninety-Five Theses
Martin Luther's famous lists of complaints about the Catholic Church. Which thanks to the printing press was posted on Church doors all around Europe(German areas mainly)
Indulgences
Payments in the form of monetary value, or deeds performed for the Church in return for years off of a potentially non-existent purgatory.
Martin Luther
Famous German Monk who sought to reform the Catholic Church but eventually split away from the Church in protest, setting a precedent which would splinter the Church into thousands of denominations.
Dante Allegheri
Famous Italian writer. Most famously known for his masterpiece "Dante's Inferno" A story about him travelling through the 9 circles of Hello, Limbo, and Heaven.
Chaucer
Inspirational English writer. Famous for his writing of the "Canterbury Tales"
Humanism
A movement throughout Europe that centered around the human element, and promoted the learning of classical Greek and Roman Arts. As well as supporting a well balanced education, with the emphasis to provide explanations, other than divine, for how the world works. Foundation for the Scientific revolution, and the Enlightenment.
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian writer, philosopher, and statesmen. Who is most known for his political theories on how to gain power, use power, and maintain power, all while understanding that sometimes it is better to be feared, rather than loved.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Famous Italian painter, inventor, sculptor, war tactician, cartographer, etc...... He was known as the ideal Renaissance man in Italy, who was often known for his wild ambitions, and not quite complete paintings, and of course, the Mona Lisa.
Secular
A common term associated with the thinking of the Humanist/Renaissance /Enlightenment era, which means having no spiritual or religious connections.
Invisible Hand
The term given to the concept, that if the government refrained from interfering with a nations economy, it would naturally be guided by the competitive nature, as well as the wants and needs of the people.
Frescoe
Painting done of fresh wet plaster, allowing paintings to express a more three dimensional look.