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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (25)
Using a single story about a personal experience to make an unfounded, overly broad generalization.
Appeal to Authority
Using the support of a famous person, authority figure, or expert to support your position.
Appeal to Personal Incredulity
The idea that something must not be true because you are personally incapable of understanding it or believing in it.
Appeal to Emotions
Fear, pity, outrage, insecurity, etc. Bypassing logic. Uses lots of loaded words. Attempts to provoke rather than persuade. All pathos, no ethos or logos.
Appeal to Tradition
The idea that we should take some course of action because we have always taken that course of action; or that we should not do something because it has never been done that way before.
Argument from Ignorance
An argument that attempts to fill gaps in knowledge with a specific idea. In other words, my position is true because it is not known to be false. Or, my position is right because no one can prove it wrong.
Burden of Proof
You: "A is true."
Me: "Maybe, maybe not. You need to prove that A is true."
You: "Nope! You have to prove that A isn't true!"
No True Scotsman / Special Pleading
When terms are redefined to suit your argument and exclude all exceptions that disprove your argument. Produces an unfalsifiable premise.
Argument from Middle Ground
This fallacy declares that the middle point between two extremes must necessarily be true—if both sides are wrong, then the compromise between both sides must be right.
Argument from Numbers (bandwagon, popularity)
This fallacy declares that something is true (or false) if a lot of people believe it to be true (or false).
Argument from Repetition
Repeating a position while slightly changing the language without actually defending or advocating the position in detail.
Assuming the conclusion you are trying to prove: "A is true because B is true. B is true because C is true. C is true because D is true. D is true because A is true. Therefore A is true."
Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
Assuming that, because A and B happened at the same time, A must have caused B.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
First event A happened, then event B happened. Therefore, A caused B.
Any question or statement that assumes an unproven conclusion.
Comparing two things that cannot fairly be compared:
(1) A and B are similar
(2) A has a certain quality
(3) Therefore B has that quality
Creating a false choice between two options when there might be more than two options in reality.
Appeal to Nature
Any argument that something is good because it is natural, or bad because it is unnatural.
Assumes that the current state of affairs (status quo) is the correct state of affairs.
Guilt by Association / Genetic Fallacy
Position A is held by bad person/group B, therefore position A is also bad. Attempts to transfer negative feelings from the entity to the issue.
Compresses an entire chain of cause and effect into a single unbroken ramp of consequences. Falsely assumes that A will automatically lead to G without proving intermediate steps of B-F.
Constructing a false, flawed version of your opponent's argument so that you may more easily attack it.
Carefully selecting information that favors your argument (or discredits your opponent) and ignoring everything else.
Argument Against the Person (Ad Hominem)
A personal attack as a substitute for argument; attacking the opponent personally instead of attacking the argument.
"You too" / tu quoque / Hypocrisy
Accusing opponents of hypocrisy instead of attacking their ideas.
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