Atkinson and Shiffrin
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His hippocampus was cut to cure epilepsy but then he was unable to transfer information to long term memoryWhat is the case study of H M?A strain of herpes damaged his hippocampus and frontal lobe giving him retrograde amnesia and this showed the short duration of the STMWhat is the case study of Clive Wearing?Baddely and HitchWho did the Working Memory Model?The Boss and controller of the working memory modelWhat is the central executive?Included the phonological store where we process voices and the articulatory loop where the voice is inside our headWhat is the phonological loop?Includes the inner-scribe which deals with movement and the visual cache which stores the form and colour of objectsWhat is the Visio-spatial sketchpad?Makes our experience smoother by putting together auditory and visual informationWhat does the episodic buffer do?More valid due to different sections and has high face validityWhat are the strengths of the working memory model?Episodic ('feeling' a personal memory), Semantic (knowing about the past either geographically or chronologically) or Procedural (automatic unconscious abilities)What are the 3 types of long term memory?Developed the crutter which was a creature with a long neck, found people with alziemers could not follow rules and so had a weak semantic memoryWhat was Kroenigs study?Proactive which is where you forget old memories as the new ones are stronger and retroactive which is where you forget new as the old ones are strongerWhat is the interference theory?211 were given a map of their childhood neighbourhood and had to name streets, there was a positive correlation between how many times they had moved and the amount of streets forgottenWhy does Schmidts study support retroactive forgetting?Golden and Baddley did a study where deep sea divers learnt key words on land or in sea and recalled either on land or sea- 40% less recall when learning and retrieval was not in the same placeWhat is context dependent forgetting?Cassaday made people learn a list when high and 40% less recall when learning and retrieval was in the same stateWhat is state dependent forgetting?Trace Decay, Displacement and RepressionWhat are the alternative theories to forgetting?Karon and Widener found WWII Veterans could only recover memories with therapy as they had repressed challenging eventsWhat is repression?Evidence provided by those recalling an event from memoryWhat are eye witness testimonies?45 students showed a clip of a car crash and then asked how fast were the cars going when they...(the verb was switched either crashed, smashed, bumped), found when smashed was used the estimate was 40.8 mph but when contacted was used it was 31.8 mphWhat was Loftus and Palmers first study?The results may have been due to demand characteristicsWhy did Loftus do another study?Split into 3 groups and asked one week later whether there was broken glass- group 1&2 (hit and smashed) said yes even though there was noneWhat was Loftus' second study?That memories aren't accurate but instead reconstructed using schemasWhat did Bartlett say?Age, gender, mental state, attention and healthWhat are factors that affect EWT?Done by Deffenbacher, the IUH explains that moderate amounts of anxiety are good for reliability as you are more alertWhat is the inverted U hypothesis?Giving electric shocks that produced anxiety did increase reliabilityWhat did Ginet and Verkampt find?That too much anxiety could lead to repressionWhat did Freud argue?21 people witnessed a gun shooting and 5 months after recall was good if they had high anxietyWhat did Yuille and Cutshall find?The Cognitive Interview as development on standard police interviewsWhat did Fisher develop?Context reinstatement, report everything, recall from a changed perspective and recall in another narrative orderWhat are the features of the cognitive interview?Seeks to build a strong relationship and the witness controls the information and is allowed to say I don't knowWhat does the enhance cognitive interview do?Holliday produced one for children where you have to use words children understand and be aware that their language may be wrongWhat does the modified cognitive interview do?