47 terms

Chapter 3.7 Economic Development - Environmental risks of economic development

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changes in the use of water from the Aral Sea in 1960
1.water in Amu Darya was used to grow wheat and cotton 2. huge canals were built to divert water through irrigation channels to the 3 million hectares of land dedicated to the two crops 3.less water reaching the lake, it began to dry up and shrink dramatically 4. By 1989 it was already half its original size, and it continued to shrink for many years after that
The Aral Sea is fed by two major rivers
Amu Darya and Syr Darya
The Aral Sea is the world's
4th largest lake
The Aral Sea is in
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
Before 1965 the Aral Sea occupied a huge area of
67 300 km2
the advantages of the annual river flood are balanced by the devastation that such floods can cause
Bangladesh
valuable source of timber
tropical rainforest
which environment would you go to for a different kind of holiday
desert areas
environment would you go to for a ski experience in winter and a mountain bike experience in summer
ski industry occupy high, steep land
Tropical rainforests
Tropical rainforests
environment would you go to for an increasingly attractive touristic experience to see the amazing plants and animals
needs can usually be met in natural environments that provide
a. low, flat land with deep, fertile soils, b. a reliable source of fresh water such as a spring or river, c. no extremes of climate and a long growing season, d. natural vegetation of temperate forest or grassland, e. natural resources, especially energy supplies but also mineral resources, f. natural beauty that is attractive to tourists
characteristics of harsh environments
a.high, steep land, b. rocky, bare landscapes c. thin, dry and easily eroded soils d. natural vegetation which is desert, poor grassland or dense forest, e. extreme climate, f. unattractive or desolate scenery, g. lack of natural resources, especially fresh water
If people have easy access to fresh water, food, fuel and shelter, they carry out their activities to make
a living and help a country develop
basic needs of life
fresh water, food, fuel and shelter
One of the most popular countries for desert tourism is
Dubai
temperate
A region characterized by mild temperatures
irrigation
Artificially diverting water to fields to grow crops
salinity
The amount of salt that something for example soil contains
malnutrition
The condition that results when the body does not get enough vitamins, minerals or other nutrients
exploit
To use, usually to try to make money
ecotourist
A tourist who particularly wants to experience the natural environment
toxic
poisonous
contamination
When pollutants are added to the natural environment
pollutants
Substances that have harmful or hazardous effects
groundwater
Underground water supplies
Acid rain
Rainfall that damages the environment because it has been made acidic by pollution in the atmosphere
Greenhouse gasses
Gases in the atmosphere that act like a blanket and reflect heat
deforestation
The removal of tree cover in an area for farming or other activities
photosynthesis
The process where plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen
gullies
Channels in the soil caused by water erosion
recycle
To turn waste into something that can be used again
conservation
The protection of the Earth and its natural resources
wilderness
An uncultivated, uninhabited and inhospitable region
In the 1960s Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan were part of
Soviet Union
In the 1960's thousands of fishermen landed 40 000 tonnes
of fish a year from the Aral Sea
People in this region of the Aral Sea made a living by
fishing in the sea
As the Aral Sea dried up, the effects on people and the environment
1.fishing became more and more difficult 2.the water was further and further away from towns where people lived 3.canals were built at first to allow ships to get to the lake but ships had to be abandoned 4.the amount of salt in the lake increased until it became almost as salty as the ocean 5.remaining fish died and the fishermen had to move away to find jobs elsewhere 6. Agricultural fertilisers and pesticides needed for the intensive farming of wheat and cotton polluted drinking water and the water used to irrigate crop land 7.no protein from fish, people suffered from malnutrition and the number of children dying increased rapidly to become the highest rate in the Soviet Union 8.violent dust storms blew salt, sand and chemicals into the air and people developed throat cancers and breathing diseases, including tuberculosis 9.summers got hotter and winters colder as the decrease in water affected the climate
Signs of recovery in the Aral sea
Building of a dam to raise the level of the lake, salinity levels have dropped to what they were in the 1960s, freshwater fish have returned and local fishermen have begun catching them in large numbers again, plans to develop tourism industry in the area, yet some areas have been subjected to desertification and vanished forever.
The polar regions of the planet lie inside the
Arctic and Antarctic circles
They are technically referred to as
cold deserts
The biggest island in the world in the North Atlantic
Greenland
Traditionally people in Greenland or islanders to make money
Fishing, process fish, seal hunt, fur trapping
Greenland has been advertising itself as a major ecotourism destination
cruise around dramatic coastline, fishing, hiking, view wildlife, eat local food, see unique sights such as the Northern Lights, dog-sledding, kayaking, heli-skiing
Digging for wealth in Greenland
Gold, coal, iron ore, graphite, platinum metals, molybdenum, columbium, chromite, cryolite
Exploitation of resources is being strictly controlled and mining companies have to
prepare detailed social and environmental impact assessments to show what effects their operations will have and what they will do to ensure minimal damage to the beauty of the natural landscape
Cold deserts are extremely cold
mainly covered in ice and have low levels of precipitation
environmental impacts of agriculture
1.rivers, seas and lakes chemicals in fertilizers and pesticides can be washed into watercourses
2.natural vegetation, chopped down to make way for fields to grow crops
3.atmosphere, farm machinery pumps pollutants into the air while rotting vegetation adds dangerous methane to the atmosphere
4.soils, growing the same crops year after year reduces soil fertility and chemical fertilizers need to be added in larger amounts
5.physical landscape, hills are terraced and the landscape destroyed to increase land available for growing crops
6.wildlife, chased away or forced to leave as natural habitats are destroyed