2.01 key words
Terms in this set (41)
produce a signal that can take on any value along a continuous scale, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4
Discrete numbers, integral to discrete mathematics, are usually represented by integers.
Decimal numbers are based on the number 10 and use 10 digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) to denote all numbers.
The binary numbers are based on the number 2 and use 2 digits (0,1) to denote all numbers.
A bit is a binary number that is the smallest unit of information a computer can use.
A byte is 8 (23) bits and can be written as 256 different decimal numbers.
A nibble is 4 (22) bits or 1 hexadecimal digit.
A kilobyte has a value of 1024 or 2^10.
A megabyte has a value of 1,048,576 or 2^20.
A gigabyte has a value of 1,073,741,824 or 2^30.
A terabyte has a value of 1,099,511,627,776 or 2^40.
Hexadecimal numbers are based on the number 16 and use 16 characters(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F) to denote all numbers.
Also called character sets, binaryor hexadecimal encoding systems are methods of representing commonly known items as a series of binary numbers. Common encoding systems are used to represent alphabet characters and punctuation with binary numbers (ASCII is an example) or colors as binary numbers (RGB for web development, CYMK for printing). Binary encoding schemes are needed because a binary system has only two values (0 or 1), but if you have two bits you can represent 4 different entities. 8 bits will allow representation of 256 entities. Examples of commonly used encoding schemes are here.
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange codes were developed as a standard that assigns numeric values to letters, numbers, and other text characters.ASCII was useful for English characters, numbers and punctuation, but not for encoding in other languages.
Unicode was developed to unify all the different encodingschemes around the world so that computers are not limited in their ability to decode other languages. Unicode currently defines
values for over 100,000 characters. A common use of Unicode is as a character encoding system in HTML on the World Wide Web.
computer is a general purpose device which can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. It can be one of many devices, such as a desktop, a mobile phone, a tablet PC, or a GPS system. Computer systems handle information.
Information Processing Cycle.
The IPO+S Model of Information Handling explains the main functions of a computer.
Input devices found on computers of all types are the vehicles for the user to direct the computer's operations.
A peripheral device is a hardware item that is connected internally or externally to a computer and is used in data transfer.
The keyboard of a computer is a peripheral device with number and character keys, as well as special keys, that allow the user to input data on a computer. The inside of a keyboard is like a mini-computer and consists of a processor and circuits.
The mouse of a computer is a handheld peripheral device that allows the user to interact with the images on the monitor. The computer mouse contains two rollers resting against a roller ball. When the mouse is moved, one roller moves vertically and the other moves horizontally.
The stylus is a handheld peripheral device, which looks like a pen that uses electromagnetic resonance technology in which radio waves are sent to the stylus and returned for position analysis. The computer picks up the information in the stylus' tip to determine position and pressure.
A touch screen works similarly to a stylus. Two plates, one a conductive and one a resistive metal layer, process action.
A microphone is a peripheral device that converts audio signals to electrical waves. These can be converted by electronic circuitry in the computer to digital form. Special speech-recognition software is required to create the digital form.
A scanner is a peripheral device used to analyze an image and to process it. Image and text capture allow the user to save information to a file on the computer. Images can be altered, enhanced, printed or inserted in documents.
Parts of all types of computers that decode instructions and defineinput so that information can be output.
A microprocessor is the central processing unit in a computer. It receives, transmits, and coordinates every command and process carried out by the system.
Boolean logic language.
Electrical currents, moving through wires and transistors, are converted into usable messages
The chipset connects the microprocessor to the rest of the motherboard, and subsequently, to the whole computer. The chipset is the gateway from the CPU to all peripherals.
CPU or MPU operations
The CPU of a computer is a chip that executes most programs on a computer.
Special purpose processors handle application specific tasks like graphics control, network communications, disk drive access, etc.It communicates with all of the other hardware components in a computer. The CPU can only do what the programmer tells it to do. While capable, the CPU has no innate intelligence. There are three steps that the CPU must follow to assure that a program operates without error
Output devices on all types of computers provide the user with requested or needed information.
printer is a peripheral device that produces a hard copy from data stored in a computer connected to it. The printer receives instructions from the computer to implement a print job. The printer parts go into action. Different types of printers have different parts. If all works as designed, the print job is completed.
A speaker is a peripheral device that uses avoice coil, an electromagnet, to receive an electronic signal from the audio in a computer. The coil moves up and down in the electromagnetic field. The coil causes a diaphragm to vibrate, producing sound waves. The human ear can hear the sound produced by the sound waves.
The monitor is the visual output device connected to a computer. It displays picturesand images in real time. There are two main types of monitors.
Computer storage is a technology consisting of computer components and recording mediaused to retain digital data. Computers of all types have the capability of storing information so the user saves time and money.
Random Access Memory
A server is a computer that provides various shared resources to workstations on a computer network.
Desktop computers are personal computers in a form intended for regular use at a single location.Desktop computers are not intended to be mobile devices. Desktop computers typically consist of a separate CPU enclosure, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.
Laptop computers are personal computers for mobile use.Laptops incorporate CPU, monitor, keyboard, and mouse into a single unit along with a rechargeable battery to power the device for a limited amount of time. Some laptops also incorporate a touch sensitive screen.
Tablet computers are usually small, lightweight mobile computers integrated into a flat touch screen and primarily operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard. Some types of tablet computers are listed.
Personal Electronic Devices
Handheld computers are computers that can conveniently be stored in a pocket and used by holding the computer in the hand. Some examples are listed here.