Bio Test 3
Terms in this set (45)
A population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations. A change in gene pool from one generation to the next
Major evolutionary change
Species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in a similar environment
Fails to account for horizontal gene transfer (branches exchange genes). Evidence-based hypotheses regarding our understanding of patterns of evolutionary descent. Branching is based on anatomical or molecular homologous structures
Biological difference between two species that prevents them from successfully interbreeding.
Reduced hybrid viability
Reduced hybrid fertility
Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics. Can occur over a few generations. Can be observed in modern organisms. Dependent upon environment
Living species have arisen from earlier life forms. Descent with modification occurs by natural selection. Species change over time.
Organisms compete for resources. Heritable traits that promote successful reproduction should gradually become more common in a population. Populations produce more offspring than their environment can support
History of Earth
Landmasses have joined into a single continent and split back apart again 3 times. Past 500 million years there have been 5 mass extinctions and each time, at least 50% of the species died. Early atmosphere lacked O2. Hot sand, clay, or rock along the seashore is thought to have promoted the dehydration synthesis of polypeptides and other macromolecules from smaller organic monomers (Miller experiment). Earliest fossils are prokaryotes around 3.5 bya
First prokaryotes, photosynthesis, first eukaryotes, colonization of land by plants. Plants and fungi on land, land arthropods, reptiles, flowering plants.
Age of reptiles. Mammals and flowering plants also appeared.
96% of marine species
96% of marine species. Global warming.
Responsible for diversity of life.
Organisms of one population do not recognize the mating call of another population and so mating does not occur. Sexual reproduction must occur.
Occurs through polyploidy (two complete sets of chromosomes, usually occurs in hybridization) in plants but is more likely to occur through habitat differentiation and sexual selection in animals
Occurs through geographic isolation
Biological Species Concepts
Potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring. Sometimes difficult to put into practice even for present sexual organisms and useless for asexual organisms. The difference between species is maintained by reproductive barriers.
Ecological Species Concept
Identifies species in terms of their niches.
Phylogenetic Species Concept
Defines a species as a set of organisms that shares a common ancestor and forms one branch on the tree of life.
Morphological Species Concept
Identifies a species based on body shape and other structural features.
Between male and female. Bright colors, colorful bower, mating dance.
Same sex competition. Elk fighting.
Results favor both ends of the spectrum (extremes).
Results favor one end of the spectrum and not the other. Can result in adaptations to survive extreme conditions.
Favors intermediate traits.
Fruit fly experiment. Formation of a reproductive barrier between two populations is more likely if they experience and adapt to different environmental conditions. Natural selection is responsible for this.
Argued that human suffering was the result of human populations increasing faster than food supply.
Developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin.
Amino acids and other organic molecules could have formed on early Earth.
Used to measure evolutionary changes. Has been used to estimate that HIV-1 M first spread to humans in the 1930s. Scientists calibrate a molecular clock by graphing the number of nucleotide differences against the dates of evolutionary branch points known from the fossil record.
Evolutionary developmental biology. An organism's body form can be substantially changed through mutations or changes in the expression of one or a few genes that regulate development.
Most general to most specific
Domain (3 domain system - archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains)
(Dear King Phillip Came Over For Great Sex)
Similar structures, from a common ancestor, with different functions today.
Ex: wing of bat vs. flipper of whale
Similar structures due to similar adaptations favored by a common environment.
Ex: wing of hummingbird vs. wing of butterfly
Structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for another function.
Ex: feathers first functioning as insulation later were co-opted for flight
Ex: human middle ear bones are derived from ancestral gill arch tissue
Ultimate source of all new alleles.
When adult organisms retain features that were present in the juvenile stage in its ancestors.
ex. Axolotl salamander (gills)
Principle of Parsimony
Keep things simple. Phylogenetic trees that minimize the number of evolutionary changes.
Bottleneck Effect (genetic drift)
A great reduction in the number of organisms reduces the genetic diversity of a population.
A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area and can interbreed.
Species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in similar environments.
RNA that functions like an enzyme.
Fusion can occur here if the reproductive barrier between two species is weak.
Exchange of genes between populations
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