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37 terms

Unit 2 History

Chapters 3/4 US History junior
STUDY
PLAY
King Philip's War
Metacoms War; conflict between NE and NA; begins when NA liaison is killed by Wampanoag;colonists win; natives put in praying towns/slavery
Bacon's Rebellion
conflict bet. landless immigrants/dispossessed natives; low tobacco/high land prices; leader looks to VA gov for help; try to stop him, call him traitor; he burns Jamestown; no lasting effect
Pope's Rebellion
"The Pueblo Revolt"; Pueblo's pray to ancient gods for rain; Spanish mad for no Catholicism, NA resent; Pope attacks/kills 400 colonists; effective, drove Spanish out of Santa Fe; Don Diego de Vargas re-est. Spanish; revenge on NA; struggle til no forcing NA by Spanish
Pennsylvania
founded as William Penn's "holy experiment"; diverse society: Quakers, all other religions; tolerant/center of commerce&culture; capital thriving port; mod. fees, punishm.,vote if free
William Penn
founded Pennsylvania; owed debt to father; intended to provide haven for Quakers, treat NA fairly, create progressive gov, make money (didnt); died of stroke in debtors prison
Salem Witch Trials
1692; 3 young girls had strange behavior, "bewitched"; (fungal infection from wheat)
Tumult Breeds Witch Hysteria
crises in MA; result of religious/economic changes; witchcraft accus. way to settle feuds; primary acc.: indep., old women
English justification for slavery
black=bad, white=holy; already existed in W Indies; need cheap labor; didnt work w/ NA; not many whites willing
Middle Passage
supply high/prices low; exposed to sun, not much food/water; not much room; examined like cattle, branded; 3 weeks/months; sold by auction: young men= highest price
black codes
defined slavery; kids were slaves too; ok for white to kill black, not inverse; no legal marriage; no property ownership; no meetings in groups (afraid of rebellion)
agriculture in middle colonies
encouraged port cities; thrived by forging comm. links bet. farmers/dealers; "new money"; city people at risk of disease; needed sailors
agriculture in N England
fishing/shipping; poor soil/cold; raised livestock; ate what produced; traded w/ Wine Island/caribbean; chief traders after Nav. Acts; ports: NYC, Phillie
Slave culture
life controlled by owner; hard to attain freedom; created comm. family to take care of sold kids; dev. language combo of Afr./English
Southern slavery
large plantations; either house servants(envied, better clothes, raped, not in sun, no intera. w/ others) or field hands (in sun all day, women took home of family after working)
Middle/NE slavery
fewer slaves; most lived in port towns, not plantations
acts of slavery rebellion
mostly try to slow down work; commit theft, destroy tools/crops, run away
early abolitionists
white colonists question morality of slavery; feared slave rebellions; "all equal in God's eyes"; Quakers
Quakers
Pacifists want peace; believed men/women equal; sat in room, wait for God to come in light to them; more radical than Puritans (commit violence against them)
Enlightenment
celebration of human reason/scientific inquiry; people look for natural (not supernat.) causes for things; influ. 18th cent. politics
Sir Isaac Newton
discovered universal laws that govern motion of space things; demonstrated universe operated by fixed principles
John Locke
English philosopher/author challenged notion that humans have no role in fate (only God) w/out denying existence of God; believed in freedom/possibility of improving conditions of lives
Education
in Enlightenment was placed upon it; ranged by region, class, gender; NE made greatest effort: all kids should be able to read Bible, passed laws to est. school, est. Harvard/ Yale; very few in chesapeake area; females grew
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, printer, inventor; part in Am. Rev.; helped secure French support; neg. Treaty of Paris; helped draft Constit.; improved human conditions
Great Awakening
immense religious revival swept across Protestant world for renewal of Calvinist beliefs; from Europe; est. Puritan churches for tax support; Anglican problems: only half churches had reg. preachers; NJ first to be effected
George Whitefield
Anglican minister found adherents across denominational lines; came to tour Mid- Colonies from England; "The Grand Itinerant"; invited to Northampton, traveled thru NE
Georgia
founded by James Oglethorpe; place for honest debtors; meant to be military buffer bet. S Carolina/Sp. FA; Savannah- 1st town; German/Scot- Irish immigrants; success when slavery allowed-45%
James Oglethorpe
sought charter to colonize Georgia (last of British mainland colonies); w/intention of est. a society of small farmers; w/out slavery/hard liquor; land<500 acres; wanted to help poor
Causes of F/I War
British/Iroquois v. French/natives; Fort Necessity expansion of war to Europe ; B > F; ambushed by F; 2/3 B troops die at FN (fails); England slow to react to colonists defending (have started war in Europe)
French/Indian War
fight over Ohio River Valley; most imp. to shaping relat. bet. B/colonies; starts in int. alliances; William Pitt takes command for B; impresses colonists; makes them mad; then relaxes policies; F are outnumbered/bad crops; B wins; F loses all N America colonies; Treaty of Paris ends the war
Consequences of F/I War
France loses NA empire; larger B land/debt; English contempt for colonies greater( refuse pay for war/sell food to F); colonies together for 1st time; B give NA smallpox/take land; Proc.of 1763 (keep colonists from Ohio Valley)
Proclamation of 1763
line across Appalac. mtns. (ME-GA) to keep B from Ohio Valley; NA not happy, but agree; B gov. wants to control W expansion, setlle to avoid spending; failed bc settlers ignore it; not enough troops; keep neg. w/ NA, move line further W
Impact of FIW on Colonists
resistant to British control; had freedom, dont react well when B tell them what to do; get B to back off
Impact of FIW on British
gain a lot of land/debt (from war); had to pay to keep soldiers in colonies; tax colonies to pay costs of empire; not prepared for colonise wanting freedom
Impact of FIW on French
lose all land in NA/many colonies elsewhere
Impact of FIW on Natives
white encroach on land whether on winning/losing side
Impressments
involuntary draft of B on colonists in F/I War
Treaty of Paris
have B colonies secure from F/S; gov. recieved 2 unprofitable colonies (Canada, FA); many colonists interpreted war as fight against Catholicism- view victory as sign God favored Britain