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Poli 201 Exam 2 Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7- George Briggs USC
Terms in this set (150)
(4.1) American exceptionalism is the view that the United States _____.
is inherently different from other nations
(4.1) Manifest Destiny was a notion held by Americans that the United States _____.
was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
(4.1) Geography fostered the development of a U.S. national identity because ______.
the colonies were too far away for European colonizers to interfere.
(4.1) ______ was the last time a foreign power invaded the continental United States.
The War of 1812.
(4.1) Reapportionment of seats and a growing population have helped the Republican Party to electoral success in ______.
the Sun Belt and Bible Belt
(4.2) ______ is a social division based on national origin, religion, and language.
(4.2) The fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States is ________.
(4.2) Which is true of America today?
Americans are living longer.
(4.2) Why are most African Americans more vulnerable economically than most whites?
Percentagewise, fewer African Americans graduate college.
(4.2) Which race in America has the highest median income?
Asians and Pacific Islanders
(4.3) There is currently a great divide between Democrats and Republicans on their opinions about taxing _____.
(4.3) The term ______ refers to the division of the population based on occupation, income, and education.
(4.3) While numerous causes have been suggested for increasing income inequality, there are those such as political scientist Larry Bartels who argue that it is caused by _______.
(4.3) The strength of the economy is directly tied to the monetary value of all goods and services produced in a nation each year, called the _______.
gross domestic product
(4.3) What issue did Robert Dahl discuss in the early 1980s that has come to prominence in the twenty-first century?
(4) The concept of American exceptionalism was coined by _______.
Alexis de Tocqueville
(4) Which region of the United States has the most urban areas relative to the rest of the country?
(4) The movement of people from rural to urban areas is known as _____.
(4) What percentage of U.S. adults have gone to college, even if they never received a degree?
Just under 50 percent
(4) The gender gap is the difference between the _______.
political opinions or political behavior of men and women
(4) Which of the following would be factored into the gross domestic product of the United States?
Machine parts produced in the United States
(4) Virtually all African American voters cast their vote for which presidential candidate?
(4) ______ make up the largest religious group in the United States.
(4) Which region of the United States has the fastest rate of population growth?
(4) A ______ system is an economic system based on private property, competitive markets, economic incentives, and limited government involvement in production, pricing, and distribution.
(4) Who has the lowest poverty rates, by percentage, in the United States?
Asian American children
(4) In the 18th and 19th centuries, most people in the United States worked primarily ________.
(4) In the 1830's, Alexis de Tocqueville concluded that the United States had had no great wars because of its _______.
Lack of powerful neighbors on its borders
(4) California stands out in the U.S. politics today because _____.
nearly one in eight U.S. citizens live in the state, making it the most populous state in the Union.
(4) The Framers of the Constitution did not endorse a national church because _______.
They believed that religious liberty flourishes when there is no official faith
(5.1) When individuals associate with each other based on their shared opinions about specific issues, they sometimes form _________ in attempt to influence the government.
(5.1) As stated in The Federalist No. 10, the way to prevent any one interest group from having too much power is to _________.
increase the scope and number of groups
(5.1) _____ is a term the founders used to refer to political parties and interest groups.
(5.1) Interest groups are often the longer-lasting outgrowth of _______.
(5.1) Why is the term "interest groups" preferred over "special interests"?
"Special interest" suggests a selfish or narrow view that serves only a few individuals.
(5.2) Which of the following is an example of a single-issue interest group?
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
(5.2) A public interest group is one that ________.
pursues issues that will benefit broad groups of people
(5.2) Which of the following is an example of a trade association?
National Association of Manufacturers
(5.2) The broadest trade association in the United States today is _______.
the Chamber of Commerce
(5.2) The National Rifle Association is an example of a(n) ___________.
(5.3) Efforts by individuals or groups to inform and influence public officials are called __________.
(5.3) Political action committees (PACs) are primarily a means used by interest groups for ________.
(5.3) ________ are relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and government agencies that share a common policy dream.
(5.3) Which type of organization is likely to enjoy the strongest cohesion?
(5.3) The movement of individuals from government positions to jobs in the private sector where they use the experience and contacts they acquired in government is known as a(n) ______.
(5.4) Many interest groups convince people to become active, contributing members by ________.
offering incentives such as discounts on services or job opportunities
(5.4) What two types of information do interest groups provide?
Political information and substantive information
(5.4) When elected officials form their own PACs to collect contributions from individuals and other PACs, which are then donated to a specific candidate or party, this is known as a ______.
(5.4) Political action committees make most of their donations to _________ politicians.
(5.4) What trend with respect to PACs is most accurate?
The number of PACs has increased dramatically since the 1970s.
(5.5) How did Super PACs affect the 2012 presidential election?
They allowed Gingrich and Santorum to continue in the race
(5.5) How did the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 change the definition of a lobbyist?
by expanding the definition to part-time lobbyists
(5.5) What is one of the main arguments against interest groups?
They do not represent people equally
(5.5) Which of the following best describes the state of disclosure of lobbying activity?
Some progress in disclosure has been made, but substantial gaps remain
(5.5) President Eisenhower's warning against the "military-industrial complex" in his Farewell Address illustrates ______ in the United States.
the continuing concern about the evils of interest groups
(5) Which of the following best characterizes James Madison's view of how government should deal with competing interests?
He favored a wide-open system in which many groups would participate and counterbalance one another
(5) Who discussed how to eliminate the negative effects of "factions" in The Federalist No. 10?
(5) What is the difference between an open shop company and a closed shop company?
At an open shop company, joining the labor union is the choice of the employee; at a closed shop company, union membership is required.
(5) Compared with other industrial democracies, the American workforce ________.
is the least unionized
(5) One of the most powerful foreign policy interest groups is ________.
the American Israel Political Action Committee
(5) Successful lobbying efforts by consumer groups benefit all consumers and not just group members who fought for change. This is an example of _________.
a free-rider problem
(5) ______ have been found to influence court decisions on whether or not to review cases.
Amicus curiae briefs
(5) The ideological groups Americans for Democratic Action and the American Conservative Union produce ratings for members of ________.
(5) The invention of PACs is attributed to _________.
(5) What is a 527 organization?
a political group organized under a section of the Internal Revenue Service Code
(5) In Citizens United v. FEC in 2010, the Supreme Court decided ____________.
that corporations and unions could use unlimited funds for election-specific ads.
(5) Pluralists would argue that lobbying _________.
is an essential way for interest groups to get their beliefs known
(5) Why do independent expenditures have more influence than what interest groups can do through political action committee contributions?
Independent expenditures are unlimited, provided the person or group operates independently of the candidate or party. PACs are limited.
(5) _______ incentives give individuals a sense of belonging stemming from their group association.
(5) Single issue interest groups are typically ___________.
(6.1) Andrew Jackson formed the ______ Party, which became a strong national political party with both state and national leadership.
(6.1) The presidential election of 1932 (FDR) is an example of ________.
(6.1) When in U.S. history did political parties develop?
soon after the adoption of the Constitution
(6.1) A ________ is when one party holds the presidency and the other party holds at least one house of Congress.
(6.1) In the 2010 elections, candidates associated with which emerging political movement won a number of Republican primary elections?
(6.2) A political party is made up of people _________.
with similar beliefs seeking control of the government through elections
(6.2) Providing incentives, such as city jobs, for loyalty to the party machine is _______.
(6.2) Typically, party candidates are chosen by ____________.
(6.2) If a party spends money on a campaign but not through the party committee, this is an example of ___________.
(6.2) Advocates of responsible party governments believe that __________.
candidates should say what they mean to do and, once elected, do what they promised
(6.3) Multiparty systems are more likely than two-party systems to lead to ________ governments.
(6.3) Why would third parties benefit from proportional representation?
They could win seats without needing to win a majority of votes.
(6.3) Minor parties organized around ______ usually last longer than those organized around a single leader.
(6.3) Had even 10% of _______ voters in Florida supported Al Gore for President in 2000, George W. Bush would have lost the election.
(6.3) In an electoral system in which only one candidate wins each district and can do so with a plurality of the vote, there is tendency to have two parties. What is this called?
(6.4) The declining attractiveness of parties and a reluctance to identify strongly with a party are hallmarks of a ________.
(6.4) Party identification refers to __________.
citizens' psychological attachment or preference for one party
(6.4) In closed primary states, voters are limited to casting ballots within their party during primary elections based on _________.
(6.4) Issue activists would most likely ____________.
push their party to support a particular cause
(6.4) Which of the following best predicts how people will vote?
(6.5) In 2008, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton competed for the support of ________, who cast official votes for the party's presidential candidate at the national convention.
(6.5) In 1968, the ________ party lost favor with voters largely because of the ________.
(6.5) In terms of fund-raising, Democratic Party committees have seen what trend since the mid-2000s?
an increasing percentage of small donors
(6.5) What roles have television, radio, the Internet, and telephones had in terms of political parties?
They have strengthened the role of candidates and lessened the importance of parties.
(6.5) The idea that the two major parties are indistinguishable from each on the issues is most likely __________.
(6) In his farewell address, President George Washington spoke to Americans about the _________ of political parties.
(6) Why has the soft money ban of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 not weakened political parties as some have predicted?
The ban of soft money was offset by a surge in individual contributions.
(6) Who was the last minor party presidential candidate to receive a single Electoral College vote?
(6) By looking at the data going back to 1992, strong partisans (i.e., strong Democrats and strong Republicans) have voted for their party's presidential candidate more than ______ of the time in every election.
(6) People who would like to show that parties in the United States are weak would likely point to which of the following as evidence?
Nonpartisan elections at the local level
(6) Crossover voting is ________.
voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another in a primary
(6) In their organization, American political parties are _________.
decentralized and fragmented
(6) How did the election of 1896 change the Republican Party even though the Republican Party remained in power?
The Republican Party came to be dominated by its progressive wing.
(6) Which of the following reflects the primary function(s) of political parties?
Organizing elections and mobilizing support for candidates.
(6) In open primaries _________.
voters may choose on election day which party primary to participate in
(6) After the 1968 Democratic National Convention, the party eliminated ________ as a reform to settle disputes on how delegates are selected.
the unit rule
(6) Soft money is ________.
money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties
(6) Contributions to a political party or candidate that are limited in amount and fully disclosed are called _______.
(6) The Libertarian Party is an example of a party that is centered on _______.
(6) The opposing party usually restrains criticism of the newly elected officials during the ________.
(7.1) What percentage of Americans would be considered part-time citizens?
(7.1) Young adults who live in the United States are likely to learn about common values, including political views, mostly from ______.
(7.1) The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs is referred to as ____________.
(7.1) Core political views tend to be very _________.
(7.1) What is it called when individuals choose to access the media they agree with and avoid the media they disagree with?
(7.2) What is public opinion?
the distribution of individual preferences on a given issue or candidate
(7.2) A poll one day before the election finds that candidate A has 52 percent of the vote, and candidate B has 48 percent of the vote. The poll's margin of error is plus or minus 5 percent. What can we conclude?
The race is too close to call.
(7.2) A pollster decides to poll 1,000 people at the Penn State-Michigan State football game about their vote intentions in the presidential race. What major issue might that poll have?
The sample may not be representative of all potential voters.
(7.2) The margin of error represents ________.
the range within which researchers are confident the population's true response would fall
(7.2) You construct a survey in which Question 8 asks respondents to describe their feelings toward government funding for food-stamp programs. This is an example of ____________.
an open-ended question
(7.3) _______ oppose nearly all government programs.
(7.3) A consistent pattern of ideas or beliefs about political values and the role of government, including how it should work and how it actually does work, is _______.
(7.3) People who self identify as conservative are typically in favor of ________.
(7.3) Liberals, more than conservatives, tend to believe which of the following?
People should have equal access to healthcare.
(7.3) In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, classical liberals favored ________.
(7.4) In which of the following types of elections is voter turnout the highest?
presidential general elections
(7.4) In 1964, President Johnson pushed for the ______ Amendment banning poll taxes.
(7.4) Women's participation in voting ________.
has increased steadily since the 1980's
(7.4) A survey polls the political opinions of a young African-American man, an older Hispanic man, an older white woman, and a young white male. Which person is most likely to vote?
the older white woman
(7.4) Low voter turnout in the United States can be partially attributed to _________.
voter registration requirements
(7.5) Which of the following is true of self-declared independents?
Two-thirds of Independents are partisans in their voting behavior
(7.5) Which of the following has been a wedge issue in recent elections?
(7.5) Voting based on an incumbent's previous performance would be considered __________.
(7.5) How voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities is _________.
(7.5) Voting based off of which party makes the best promises for the future is an example of ________.
(7) Which of the following is true of the attentive public?
They vote in most elections
(7) It is most accurate to say that public opinion ______ policy.
(7) A social conservative would most likely support which of the following?
strong governmental action to protect children from pornography and drugs
(7) The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ____________.
outlawed discriminatory voting practices based on race.
(7) Most political scientists agree that ______, while important, is/are less important to vote choice than party identification and candidate appeal.
(7) What did a study that compared the political attitudes of identical twins to those of nonidentical twins find?
Identical twins agreed about politics more than nonidentical twins did.
(7) Which of the following statements about the viewership of CNN, MSNBC, and Fox News programs is true?
These programs used to draw a wide audience from all age groups, but today their audience consists mostly of older people.
(7) Which statement best reflects the relationship between age and the level of political participation.
Aging increases political participation
(7) According to research by Jacobs and Shapiro, how do politicians generally use data from public opinion polls?
Politicians use public opinion data mostly to strengthen how they present their stands to the public.
(7) What have public opinion polls revealed about American's general level of political information?
People have low levels of information on most issues
(7) Over the past five decades, the public's trust in government has _______.
(7) Which of the following would be a statement by a voter who is thinking in ideological terms?
I like the challenger because she is a conservative who believes in limited government.
(7) Max has recently opened his own business. He says he supports a particular Republican candidate because the candidate supports entrepreneurs more than the Democratic challenger does. Which type of voter is Max?
Group benefits voter
(7) Which of the following forms of political participation is considered unconventional?
Demonstrating in front of a national party convention
(7) Which of the following statements about the relationship between education and political participation is the most accurate?
Better-educated people participate more frequently in politics and in multiple ways.
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