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Terms in this set (39)
The systematic search for and validation of knowledge. Note the emphasis on systematic.
The systematic search for and validation of knowledge in the world of nursing. Validation - does it really measure what it is supposed to measure
purposes of research
control which I am not studying, ex: if I am not interested in a woman's parity then I can control the parity so that I can focused on infant birth weight
Here control isn't a bad thing....we may test an intervention in a specific sample of people under ideal conditions to determine whether the intervention is effective and safe.
publicly verifiable with out senses
descriptions of moral obligations, moral and non-moral values, and desired ends
Ethical knowing, constitutes the ethics of nursing, as described in ANA Code of Ethics
Ethical knowing is tested by means of ethical inquiries that focus on dialogue about beliefs and values and establishing justification for those beliefs and values.
Knowing, encountering, and actualizing of the authentic self; how nurses come to know how to be authentic in relationships with patients, and how nurses come to know how to express their concern and caring for other people.
Knowing one's own "personal style" of "being with" another person. Personal knowing is what is meant by "therapeutic nurse-patient relationships."
Mode of inquiry opening, centering, listening, and reflecting
artful performance of nursing, not just science side of it
"Artful" performance of manual and technical skills. Developed by envisioning possibilities and rehearsing the art and acts of nursing, with emphasis on developing appreciation of aesthetic meanings in practice and inspiration for developing the art of nursing.
Mode of inquiry- envisioning possibilities
topics of nurse research
the people we are working with, whatever is affecting them
how the environment affects a person (family, location, etc) (indian children came in with lead poisoning because they had ceremonial paint with high levels)
sleeping cycles, rotating shifts, working conditions, administration issues
preventative measures, ways to improve overall health
A coherent body of knowledge composed of research findings and tested theories within a particular discipline.
A way of explaining some aspect of the empirical world (empirical means publicly verifiable, experienced through our senses).
How you view things
gives unity and meaning to the world of nursing and provides a structure, or a lens from which to view nursing care.
Nursing has a philosophy of holism that influences research and practice.
For example, the hospitalized child and his or her parent are viewed as a whole rather than separate.
bandura theory of self efficacy
If people have performed a behavior before or saw someone else perform the behavior, they are more likely to perform the behavior because they have more confidence in their ability to succeed.
If I have jogged before, I can do it again to lose weight. If I have stopped smoking cigarettes before, I can do it again. If I observe someone perform breast self exam, then I am more likely to do it myself. This theory is a social cognitive theory from the discipline of psychology.
watson theory of caring
The purpose of the study was to identify which nurse caring behaviors are perceived by patients in an emergency department as important indicators of caring.
Watson's theory of caring was used as a theoretic framework for this quantitative descriptive study.
developing specific predictions from general principles (general to specific). Big to small!
An example of deductive reasoning is:
If separation anxiety occurs in hospitalized children, then children who remain with their parents in the hospital may manifest less stress than if they are separated.
Theory to get small bits of data
Making generalizations from specific observations (specific to general). Small to big!
An example of inductive reasoning is:
You interview and observe many hospitalized children who as a result of procedures, experienced pain.
Based on your specific observations, a recurring theme emerges. When at least one parent remains in the room children cry less often and are more readily soothed. You induce that children are soothed by presence of a parent
Small bits of data to get a theory
Paradigm: A worldview, often characterized by basic philosophical approaches.
We will discuss two paradigms:
positivist and naturalistic/constructivist
PARADIGM SHIFT - means a HUGE change in view
An assumption is a basic principle that is believed to be true without proof or verification.
What we think is going on before we do the research
The major assumptions of the positivist and naturalistic (constructivist)paradigms are very different
4 kinds of assumptions
What is the nature of reality?
ontology in positive paradigm
Reality can be studied and known. There is a real world driven by natural causes.
reality exists outside and we can see a cause and intervene
ontology in naturalist paradigm
Reality is not fixed. - we co-create reality
Reality does not exist outside the inquirers' view.
There are multiple realities that are constructed by individuals.
Reality exists in context and many constructions are possible.
There are multiple interpretations of reality that exist in people's minds.
What is the relationship between the inquirer and that being studied?
epistemology in positive paradigm
The inquirer (researcher) is independent from those being researched; The researcher does not influence the findings.
epistemology in naturalist paradigm
The researcher and the individuals participate together in the research. The results of the research are created in interaction together. Reality is co-created.
What is the role of values in the inquiry?
axiology in positive paradigm
The researcher is objective. Values and biases are to be held in check - can't just have someone do the study knowing it will yield the results you want
axiology in naturalist paradigm
Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable.
How does the inquirer obtain knowledge? How do we go about getting this info or performing this study?
methodology in positive paradigm
Deductive reasoning (from general to specific), emphasis on discrete concepts, fixed design and control
The results are obtained by statistical analysis. Quantitative analysis.
methodology in naturalist paradigm
Inductive reasoning (from specific to general), entirety, holism, context bound, interpretative
Participant observation, face-to-face interviews, focus groups, in-depth interviews
Qualitative analysis: examples are grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology
Samples are usually small - 40 to 50
The positivist paradigm stresses the rational and scientific.
The biomedical model that is prevalent in the practice of medicine and nursing is still the positivist paradigm
kant, comte, newton
Reality exists independent from our minds. "There is one truth."
There are antecedent causes and effects. In other words, if there is a problem, there is a "cause" out there waiting to be discovered.
Where the deductive thinking comes in and it is the dominant force in positive paradigm
Much of research in the positivist paradigm is designed to seek out the cause. If we know the cause, then we can intervene.
Positivists seek to be objective in their pursuit of knowledge.
The scientific approach is the use of orderly, disciplined procedures that test the researcher's ideas about the nature of the topic being studied.
You may consider the biomedical model of health care as emanating from logical positivism.
Began as a movement against logical positivism
Reflects cultural postmodernism
Postmodern thinking emphasizes the value of deconstruction: taking apart old ideas and reconstructing them in new ways.
Many feminist thinkers and those who emphasize the importance of culture and critical social analysis may work within the postmodern or qualitative approach
components for quantitative study
Intervention (exposure, issue)
Comparison - not always specified
Time - not always specified
in (population), what is the effect of (intervention), in comparison to (comparison) on (outcome)?
hierarchy of strength of research
not all research articles are of the same strength in their evidence!
1. systematic review (highest level of evidence)
2. single RCT
3. single non randomized trial (quasi experimental)
4. single prospective/cohort study
5. single case control study
6. single cross sectional study
7. single in depth qualitative study
8. expert opinion, case reports (lowest level)
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