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Ch 2: Theories of Personality
Terms in this set (14)
What is Personality?
Personality is an individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
The five-factor model of personality or "Big Five"
Openness to experience
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The id: primitive, instinctive component; the "pleasure principle"
The ego: decision-making component; the "reality principle"
The superego: moral component; social standards
Freud Three levels of awareness:
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory - Conflict and Defense Mechanisms
A defense mechanism is a largely unconscious reaction that protects a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Types of Defense Mechanisms
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response originally evoked by another stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Conditioned response (CR)
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
Operant Conditioning reinforcements
-Positive reinforcement: when a response is strengthened (frequency increased) because it is followed by the arrival of a pleasant stimulus
-Negative reinforcement: when a response is strengthened (frequency increased) because it is followed by the removed of an unpleasant stimulus
-Punishment: a response is weakened (frequency decreased) because it is followed by the arrival of an unpleasant stimulus
Bandura's Observational Learning - Social Cognitive Theory (Vicarious)
-Observational learning occurs when responding is influenced by the observation of others (models)
Rogers's Person-Centered Theory
Self-concept: A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
Incongruence: The disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization
-Hierarchy of needs: a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
-Need for self-actualization: need to fulfill one's potential
According to Maslow;s hierarchy of needs, common source of stress can come from us mistaking__________ for _________
wants for needs
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 1: Adjusting to Modern Life
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Chapter 2 - Personality
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