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64 terms

Chemistry Section 2

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Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass; solids, liquids, and gases; distinguished by physical properties
Physical properties
Properties of matter that can be observed and measured without changing the chemical structure of the substance; density, freezing point, melting point, etc.
Density
A physical property of the mass of material per specified (unit) volume; d = m/V
Mass units
Grams (g), kilograms (kg), milograms (mg), etc.
Volume units
Liters (L), mililiters (mL), cm cubed (cm³)
Density units
Grams per mililiters (g/mL), grams per centimeter cubed (g/cm³), etc.
Freezing point
The point at which water freezes- 0° C, or 32° F- in normal atmospheric conditions
Aqueous solution ("Universal solvent")
A solution that dissolves many different substances easily
Mixture
A combination of 2 or more substances that retain all their physical properties and can be seperated by physical means
Heterogenous mixture
A mixture with a composition of substances that are not evenly distributed throughout (one at top, one at bottom, etc.)
Homogenous mixture
A mixture that has all substances evenly distributed throughout it
Suspension
A heterogenous mixture with large particles at the bottom that can be obtained without filtration
Colloid
A heterogenous mixture containing small, floating particles that never settle at the bottom
Tyndall effect
An effect that occurs when you shine light through a water source, and if it contains small particles, the light scatters, and if the water is pure, the light shines through evenly
Solution
All homogenous mixtures, consisting of a solute and a solvent
Solvent
The dissolving substance in a soution
Solute
The substance being dissolved in a solution by a solvent
Particulate level
The level of substances that observes their molecules and atoms
Atom
The smallest piece of matter still retaining its physical properties ("building blocks of matter")
Molecule
2 or more atoms bonded by chemical bonds
Element
Matter made up totally by only one type of atom
Compound
Matter made up of two or more types of elements linked chemically
Chemical symbol
1, 2, or 3 letters, always starting with capital letters and then lowercase for the rest, to represent elements; used by scientists internationally (i.e. H, C, Ne...)
Chemical formula
Made of compounds; has elements and their ratios as subscripts (i.e. H₂O, CO₂)
Chemical equation
Shows a chemical reaction; has different names from start to finish, but same number of atoms of each element (i.e. 2H₂+ O₂-> 2H₂O)
Chemical reaction
Breaking down bonds of chemicals and forming new ones, rearranging atoms ito new substances
Pure substance
A substance that, when broken down, contains uniform composition of the atoms; each has its own distinct properties
Subscript
The number written below the line of the chemical symbol that represents the ratio of atoms to a unit of the substance
Reactant
The original substance(s) starting out in a chemical reaction/ equation
Product
The resulting substance(s) in a chemical reaction/ equation from the reactants, written on the right side of an arrow
Diatomic molecule
An element that exists naturally as 2 atoms of the same type bonded together
Proton
A positively- charged subatomic particle in the nucleus cluster(center of atom)- p⁺¹; in a neutral atom atom, the number of protons is the same as the number of nuetrons
Neutron
A non- charged subatomic particle that's also in the nucleus cluster- n; in a neutral atom, the number of neutrons is the same as the number of protons
Electron
A negatively- charged subatomic particle orbiting the nucleus in the electron cloud
Ion
An atom that has a charge, or unequal number of protons and electrons; mostly, an ion will occur from a dropped or added electron (since it is easier for them to change as they are in the electron cloud)
Cation
An ion that is positively- charged, because electrons are dropped (+e⁻¹)
Anion
An ion that is negatively- charged, because electrons are gained (-e⁻¹, or e⁺¹)
Ionic compound
A substance formed by anions and cations held by ionic bonds; the overall charge should balance out to neutral
Polyatomic ion
An ion group consisted of more than one ion with a charge
Rules for ionic compounds
Write the cation (positive) first, then anion (negative) (Li⁺, Cl⁻); change the subscript(s) until the charge reaches zero (Mg²⁺, Br⁻, 2-1=0, 2-2= 0); get the GCF to 1; if polyatomic ion, use parenthesis- OH⁻, Ca²⁺ Ca²(OH⁻)
Rules for naming ions
Write the name of the cation first, then anion; anion should be changed so it ends in "-ide" if not a polyatomic ion (lithium chloride); if a polyatomic ion, anion stays same (ammonium); if cation is a transition metal, include charge in Roman numerals (Iron III)
Confirming test
A test that proves if an ion is present in a substance or not (positive vs. negative results); the judge is color change and precipitate formation
Precipitate
An insoluble, usually milky white solid that can appear during confirming tests
Control
A solution that has no ions in it, as a reference for the water samples (de- ionized/ distilled water)
Reference
A solution containing a set (large) amount of ions in it, to compare the water samples with
Model
Reprensentations of atoms and molecules
Macroscopic
Visible with the naked eye
Data
Collected by quantitative/ qualitative tests
Row 1: +1; Row 2: +2; Row 13: +3; Row 14: +-4; Row 15: -3; Row 16: -2; Row 17: -1
Ions in each row of the periodic table of elements
Hydrogen (H₂); Nitrogen (N₂); Oxygen (O₂); Flourine (F₂); Chlorine (Cl₂); Bromine (Br₂); Iodine (I₂)
Diatomic Molecules
Alligators, turtles, snakes, ibises, otters
Animals found in the Hillsborough River
54 miles
Length of Hillsborough River
20 counties
Counties of Hillsborough River
The Green Swamp of Polk Valley
Hillsborough River begins
Tanic acid from leaves is taken into rivers by rainwater
Why the Hillborough River turns dark brown in the rainy season
Pollution (bacteria); water carries too many nutrients; water with not enough oxygen; wastewater (treated water)
Problems with Hillsborough River from tributaries
4- Base Project
Economical way of controlling flooding, by shutting off the flow of water during flooding and diverts it to land; also, preserve nearby forests helps battle flooding
Home properties erode into the water
When people build homes too close to the Hillsborough River
Large- mouth bass; mercury
People (children) can't eat ____ in the Hillsborough RIver because they have large amounts of ____
Use un-dissolvable, nontoxic water; wash vehicles over concrete; pick up after pets; keep pollution off streets
4 ways to preserve the Hillsborough River
The dam of the Middle Hillsborough River
WHere 70% of Tampa's drinking water originates
There is a lack of flowing water; fertilizers wash into the water, and the scientists have to rid of the algae that forms by using chemicals
Why the Lower Hillsborough River's water quality is usually low
An extension of Tampa Bay, where fresh water/ salt water mix
Why the area under the dam is an estuary
Port of Tampa
Where the Hillsborough River shipping traffic has now been diverted