Health Psychology (Psychology 3830) Exam 1
Terms in this set (104)
the sub-area within psychology devoted to understanding psychological influences on health, illness, and responses to those states, as well as the psychological origins and impacts of health policy and health interventions.
The absence of disease or infirmity, coupled with a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being
an optimum state of health achieved through balance among physical, mental, and social well-being.
the origins and causes of illness.
the philosophical position regarding whether the mind and body operate indistinguishably as a single system or whether they act as two separate systems; the view guiding health psychology is that the mind and body are indistinguishable.
the viewpoint, originally advanced by Freud, that specific unconscious conflicts can produce physical disturbances symbolic of the repressed conflict; no longer a dominant viewpoint in health psychology. The patient converts the conflict into a symptom via the voluntary nervous system; he or she then becomes relatively free of the anxiety the conflict would otherwise produce.
a field within psychiatry, related to health psychology that developed in the early 1900s to study and treat particular diseases believed to be caused by emotional conflicts, such as ulcers, hypertension, and asthma.
the view that biological, psychological, and social factors are all involved in any given state of health or illness
the viewpoint that illness can be explained on the basis of aberrant somatic processes (micro-level influences), such as biochemical imbalances or neurophysiological abornmalities. Also, that psychological and social processes are largely independent of the disease process; the dominant model in medical practice until recently
Biological Context: evolutionary perspective
Adaption and reproductive success drive trait and behavior development. Most important traits are epigenetic
Gene expression is influenced by environmental factors
Biological Context: Life-course perspective
focuses on age-related aspects of health and illness, considers leading causes of death; overall and by age group
Ways people think about, influence, and relate to one another and the environment
- birth cohort
Group of people born at the same time who experience similar historical and social conditions, elements of your unique social context affects your experiences and influences your beliefs and behaviors - including those related to heath
Enduring behaviors, values, and customs that a group of people transmit from one generation to the next
large groups of people who tend to have similar values and experiences because they share certain characteristics
Socioeconomic status (SES)
measure of several variables, including income, education, and occupation
the view that all levels of an organization in any entity are linked to each other hierarchically and that change in any level will bring about change in other levels; the micro-level processes (such as cellular changes) are nested within the macro-level processes (such as societal values) and that changes on the micro-level can have macro-level effects (and vise versa).
essentail to your digestion of health-related information
- essentail element of evidence based medicine
evidence based medicine
Uses current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients or the delivery of health services, medicinal interventions should be tested for efficacy before employed as a standard of care
tendency to selectively seek out and consider information that confirms ones beliefs
researchers observe and record participants behaviors, forming hypotheses that are tested systematically after data collection
- includes: case studies, surveys, interviews and naturalistic observation
-subject to bias of observer and single cases may be misleading
observance of participants behavior and recording of relevant data
determine how related tow variables are using correlation coefficient
=Direction: R value ranges from -1.00 to +1.00
= Strength: R value ranges from 0 (no correlation) to 1 (perfect correlation) regardless of sign
-usually in laboratory and involve statistical comparison of experimental and control groups
participants of receive the condition or treatment of interest (independent variable)
comparison group of participants who receive a different treatment or no treatment
is the manipulated by the variable: is being studied
variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable
assigned to groups by chance to minimize preexisting differences
the study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of infectious and noninfectious disease in a population, based on an investigation of the physical and social environment.
the number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time.
the number of deaths due to particular causes.
a set of interrelated analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena, such as why people practice poor health behaviors
Examination of changes in one variable (exposure to stress) and corresponding changes in another variable (heart disease).
randomized clinical trials
an experimental study of the effects of a variable administered to human subjects who are randomly selected from a broad population and assigned on a random basis to either an experimental or control group.
the repeated observation and measurement of the same individuals over a period of time.
responsible for the transmission of information from the brain to the rest of the body and from the rest of the body to the brain; it is composed of the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (which consists of the remainder of the nerves in the body).
Nervous System: Peripheral
Somatic or autonomic
Nervous system: Peripheral SOMATIC
responsible for movement of voluntary muscles and the process
Nervous System: peripheral AUTOMNIC
acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.
- EITHER sympathetic or parasympathetic
Nervous system: Peripheral -> autonomic -> SYMPATHETIC
fight or flight: stimulates adrenals to release hormones, particularly cortisol
Nervous system: Peripheral -> autonomic -> PARASYMPATHETIC
slows activity or organs and increases digestion
Motor cortex: controls voluntary movement
important for speech production
body sensations: attention, perception and spatial localization
language comprehension and production
hindbrain: essential life processes like cardiovascular activity and breathing
hindbrain: sleep and arousal, attention
hindbrain: refines motor movements, controlling speed, intensity and direction
receives information from all senses expect olfaction (smell) and relays this to the cortex
controls emotion and motivated behaviors: eating, drinking, and sexual activity
secretes melatonin and regulates daily body rhythms
the main portion of the brain, responsible for intelligence, memory, and the detection and interpretation of sensation (personality).
the nervous system functions by means of chemicals, called neurotransmitters, that regulate nervous system functioning.
the neurotransmitters, epinephrine and norepinephrine, that promotes sympathetic nervous system activity; released in substantial quantities during stressful times
slow chemical communication system, set of glands that secrets hormones into the bloodstream
pituitary gland; endocrine system
control by the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
adrenal glands; endocrine system
just above the kidneys, produces epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, and cortisol which help to arouse the body in times of stress
thyroid gland; endocrine system
regulate growth and metabolism, secreted by parathyroid glands regulate level of calcium in the body
pancreas; endocrine system
-glucagon raises the concentration of glucose in blood
-insulin controls the conversion of sugar and carbohydrates into energy
carry blood away from the heart; deoxygenated blood
carry blood back to the heart from capillaries; oxygenated blood
defender against antigens bacteria, viruses, parasites, or any foreign microorganism
immune system structure
immune system spread throughout body
-capillaries carry lymph
-white blood cells produced in bone marrow and patrol body for antigens
-thymus produces thymosin, controls lymphocyte production
-tonsils hold lymphocytes
the body's resistance to injury from invading organisms, acquired from the mother at birth, through disease, or through vaccinations and inoculations
involves general defenses against antigens
-skin, saliva, perspiration
occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged cells release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling.
nonspecific immune response: phagocytosis
active when a foreign substance penetrates skin cells, destroy antigens in bloodstream by engulfing and digesting them
nonspecific immune response: macrophages (big eaters)
-patrol body for worn out cells and antigens
nonspecific immune response: natural killer cells (NK)
-patrol for diseased cells
-destroy viruses and tumor cells in blood and body tissues by injecting with lethal chemicals
specific immune response
an antigen has been encountered before (natural immunity) or a vaccination creates a "memory" for specific antigens
specific immune response: B cells
white blood cells that attack antigens by producing specific antibodies (immunoglobins )
specific immune response: T cells
white blood cells attack antigens directly, without producing antibodies
T cells: cytotoxic cells
"killer cells" equipped with receptors that match one specific antigen
T Cells: helper cells
sentries that travel through the bloodstream hunting antigens and secreting chemical messengers (lymphokines), which stimulate other immune cells
T cells: Suppressor Cells
produce chemicals that suppress immune responding, also alert T and B cells when antigen is vanquished
produced by macrophages, When the cytokines are produced they cannot get through the blood brain barrier of the brain, so they are not technically in the brain
the pairing of a stimulus (antabuse) with an unconditioned reflex (nausea, vomiting), such that over time the new stimulus (alcohol) acquires a conditioned response (nausea, vomiting), evoking the same behavior; the process by which an automatic response is conditioned to a new stimulus.
the pairing of a voluntary behavior with systematic consequences; if an individual performs a behavior and reinforcement is withdrawn or the behavior is punished, the behavior is less likely to be repeated.
appraising events as harmful, threatening, or challenging, and assessing one's capacity to respond to those events; events that are perceived to tax or exceed one's resources are seen as stressful
events perceived to be stressful
the degree to which the needs and resources of a person and the needs and resources of an environment complement each other
general adaptation syndrome
a profile of how organisms respond to stress; characterized by three phases: alert phase, which promotes sympathetic nervous system activity; a resistance phase, during which the organisms make efforts to cope with the threat; and exhaustion phase, which occurs if the organism fails to overcome the threat and depletes its psychological resources.
a theory of responses to stress maintaining that in addition to fight or flight, humans respond to stress with social affliction and nurturant behavior toward offspring; thought to depend on the stress hormone oxytocin; these responses may be especially true of women.
the perception of a new or changing environment as beneficial, neutral, or negative in its consequences; believed to be a first step in stress and coping
the assessment of ones coping abilities and resources: whether they will be sufficient to meet the harm, threat, and challenge of the event.
the predisposition to react physiologically to stress; believed to be genetically based in part; high reactivity is believed to be a risk factor for a range of stress related diseases.
the accumulating adverse effects of stress, in conjunction with preexisting risks, on biological stress regulatory systems. Refers to the fact that physiological systems within the body fluctuate to meet demands from stress, a state called allostasis.
a stressful experience that is a usual but continually stressful aspect of life
aftereffects of stress
performance and attentional decrements that occur after a stressful event has subsided; believed to be produced by the residual physiological, emotional, and cognitive draining in response to stressful events.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD)
a syndrome that results after exposure to a stressor of extreme magnitude, marked by emotional numbing, the reliving of aspects of the trauma, intense responses to other stressful events, and other symptoms, such as hyper-alertness, sleep disturbance, guilt, or impaired memory or concentration.
acute stress paradigm
a lab procedure whereby an individual goes through moderately stressful procedures (such as counting backwords rapidly by 7s), so that stress-related changes in emotions and physiological and/or neuroendocrine processes may be assessed.
stressful life events
events that force an individual to make changes in his or her life
minor daily stressful events; for example, being stuck in traffic, waiting in line, having difficulty making small decisions.
the perception that an event is stressful independent of its objective characteristics
conflict that occurs when two or more social or occupational roles that an individual occupies produce conflicting standards for behavior
a time when a person is sick or has a disease that affects the body or mind
Each cell in a human has 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs of 2.