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Pathology - Exam 1
Terms in this set (81)
All of the following are recognized types of necrosis except:
a. Protein necrosis
b. Caseation necrosis
c. Coagulative necrosis
d. Fat necrosis
e. Liquefactive necrosis
a. Protein necrosis
which of the following terms is used to describe a sub-lethal injury.
a. irreversible injury
b. infectious injury
c. chronic injury
d. reversible injury
e. acute injury
d. reversible injury
_____ is the type of gangrene that has no bacteria involved in the process
What are the etiological agents classified as internal factor?
genetic, immune system, aging
what are the etiological agents classified as internal factors
hemosiderin, bile pigment, melanin
______ is an example of cellular degeneration also known as cloudy swelling
what etiological agents are considered external factors
chemical, environmental, physical
the pathologists' work is based on the diagnostic work they do. In microbiology, the pathologists' work involves
mycology, virology, bacteriology
_____ is the concept that indicates deposition of calcium at the site of tissue necrosis
in a simple disease...
an etiologic agent acts on a tissue or organ and causes damage or change in the structure and function of cells
what can make a disease more likely to occur or can modify the course of a disease
age, environmental factors, immune system, genes
sequelae of necrosis depends on what criteria
whether the cause of the injury has stopped or is ongoing, the extent of the necrosis, the type of tissues involved
this type of necrosis in which dead tissue is converted into a substance that resembles cottage cheese is known as _____ necrosis
dalmatian puppies are prone to _____ urinary calculi because they lack the _____ enzyme required to metabolize _____
uric acid, liver, uric acid
_____ is used to indicate "apoptosis"
programmed cell death
what type of gangrene results in the formation of crepitation in the affected tissue
the era of pathology begun with Morgagni in
the term that is used to indicate low level of blood oxygen reaching a tissue or organ is
what are the known types of classification of necrosis
diffused, focal, multifocal
what term is associated with persistent high levels of calcium throughout the body?
a disease present at birth that has been caused by something which happened to the developing embryo or fetus before birth is called
what assumptions can be made upon finding certain antibodies in an animal?
the animals has been vaccinated, the animal has been exposed to infectious agents
when an animal dies, oxygen supply will stop and cells are digested by their own enzymes. This phenomenon is known as
what is the term for "the mechanisms that lead to the development of a disease" or as " the chain of events from initial stimulus to manifestation of disease"?
when healing is achieved by replacement of dead cells with the same type of cells; this is called
lymphatic obstruction (or blockage) can be caused by
bandage made too tight, scar tissue, immobility
the term that describes a reduced blood flow into an organ or tissue, leading to decreased supply of vital nutrients is
the common causes of ischemia are
vasoconstriction, vasculitis and embolism
the final reaction of the coagulation cascade is the transformation of
fibrinogen to fibrin
_____ is the type of hemorrhage that is characterized by areas of pinpoint hemorrhages
what are the clinical findings in patients with DIC
thrombocytopenia, presence of multiple hemorrhages all over the body, depletion of some coagulation factors
the following mechanisms will cause non-inflammatory edema
increased tissue osmotic pressure, lymphatic obstruction, increased blood hydrostatic pressure
whether tissue damage caused by ischemia is reversible or not will depend on
the duration of the ischemia and the metabolic demand of the tissue
_____ is the term used to indicate the necrosis of tissue as a result of lack of blood supply
a canine patient that is coughing up blood clots is said to be having signs of
_____ pressure is the pressure that is caused by the difference in concentrations of two solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane
what term is used to indicate the condition characterized by arteriole and capillary dilation that leads to the area becoming red and feeling warm because of blood accumulation
what term describes the condition that results from an obstruction of blood vessel by foreign substances or a blood clot
a patient suffering from shock will show these clinical signs
decreased renal function, lethargic, increased heart rate
_____ is also used to describe an animal experiencing hemorrhagic shock
what is a hereditary coagulopathy (or coagulation disorder)
Von Willebrand's disease
_____ is the type of shock that results in binding of antigens to blood antibodies, which leads to vasodilation and circulatory collapse
endothelial cells secrete a substance called _____. Under normal circumstances, this substance acts like a non-stick coating and prevents _____ in vessels
glycoprotein, blood clotting
what term describes the condition that results from presence of subcutaneous fluid over the entire body of an animal
the stage of hemostasis that is characerized by platelets tat stick to the injured endothelium and become activated is called
_____ is the term used to describe the pathologic process that leads to the formation of a blood clot within the blood vessels or the heart
this is the type of chock that occurs in animals with severe fright, pain, or trauma
what condition causes fluid to accumulate on ventral areas of the thorax and abdomen and lower limbs
what condition is used to describe hemorrhages that are scattered on many body surfaces of the animals
a longer lasting several minutes or even days or arteriole or capillary dilation caused by chemical mediators from the damaged tissue and from the plasma
list six systemic effects of acute inflammation
increased body temp, changes in blood, pain, depression, anorexia, nausea, muscle pain and weight loss
differentiate between hemorrhagic exudate and suppurative exudate
hemorrhagic exudate contains numberous red blood cells in the serous fluid, with or without leukocytes. Suppurative exudate contains many dead or dying neutrophils and bacteria
What are the main types of chronic inflammatory responses
granulomatous and nongranulomatous (or diffuse) chronic inflammation which refers to the pattern of inflammation cells seen under the microscope
what are the five cardinal signs of inflammation
redness, heat in the tissue, pain and swelling, and often loss of function of the affected part
what are mast cells? what substance do they contain?
mast cells are large round cells that are widespread in the body in connective tissues, strategically placed beside capillary beds. Mast cells contain packets of potent chemicals in their cytoplasm and release their contents upon stimulation
differentiate between acute inflammation and chronic inflammation regarding onset and duration
acute inflammation is the initial short-term response, in which blood vessels dilate and become permeable with escape of fluid exudate, and white bloood cells such as neutrophils are recruited from the vessels. Chronic inflammation occurs in the presence of continued or longer term stimuli and is dominated by macrophages and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and plasma cells) with fibrous tissue
what are five harmful effect of chronic inflammation
weight loss or poor weight gain, loss of organ/tissue function, tumor formation, recurrent or persistent fever, and changes in the blood.
small intestine inflammation
the liver of aged dogs may be affected by the condition called "nodular liver regeneration". Describe the appearance of such liver.
ongoing liver damage with focal (nodules) of regeneration and intervening scar tissue so that eventually the liver can resemble a large bunch of grapes
replacement by cells of the same types
replacement by fibrovascular connective tissue
cells in the body can be divided in groups according to their regenerative capacity. What are these types of cells
cells are divided into labile, stable, and permanent cell populations according to their ability to replace themselves
healing by a clean, incised wound and the edges are neat and closely apposed with no or very few bacteria present to contaminate the wound
healing of a wound where there is a tissue defect. edges of the wound are widely separated tissue has been lost and the defect contains exudate and necrotic debris
list eleven factors that can impair, prevent, or alter healing
sever prolonged damage, contamination, inadequate blood supply, systemic hormonal disorders, inadequate nutrition, movement, self-trauma, old age, immunodeficiency disease, chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation, and denervation
immature connective tissue used to fill in wounds
inflammation composed of distinct arrangements of inflammatory cells called granulomas which are made up of central connections of macrophages with other mainly mononuclear inflammatory cells clustered around the macrophages and a rim of fibrous tissue around the outside.
explain the term megaesophagus. in what species has it been described?
megaesophagus is the dilation of the esophagus because of insufficient or uncoordinated peristalsis in the mid and cervical esophagus. it has been described in dogs, cats, cows, ferrets, horses, and new world camelids.
define "stomatitis" and give five types of lesions observed with stomatitis and gingivitis
stomatitis refers to inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Five types of lesions are macules, papules, vesicles, erosions, and ulcers
what is canine oral papillamatosis? Who is usually affected by it?
canine oral papillamatosis is a papovavirus-induced transmissible condition that usually occurs in animals younger than 1 year
give the anatomic locations where choke is most likely to occur
dorsal to the larynx and at the throacic inlet, base of the heart, and the diaphragmatic hiatus
what is the cause of choke in older horses
poor dentition causes feed to be incompletely masticated, resulting in impaction in the esophagus.
explain how pyloric stenosis is the first recognized in recently weaned animals?
projectile vomiting, retention of gastric contents, gastromegaly, and the presence of strong peristalic waves.
give the preventative measures for periodontal disease
mildly abrasive diets and brushing of the teeth of pet carnivores, combined with regular dental examination is preventative measures
when one segment of intestine becomes telescoped into the immediately distal segment of intestine, the lesion is called an intussusception
aka legume bloat, dietary bloat, or frothy bloat, generarlly occurs up to 3 days after animals begin a new diet.
is caused by physical or functional obstruction or stenosis of the esophagus resulting in failure to cructate
inability of the pyloric sphincter to function properly. this could be due to an anatomic problem and may be congenital or acquired.
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