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Social Psychology Exam #1
Terms in this set (82)
We feel like we are center stage. We think people are paying more attention to us than they actually are
Illusion of transparency
When you feel like your inner emotions are seen by others very easily.
Ex) You expect your boyfriend to know your upset
Interplay between sense of self and social world
Fundamental Attribution Error/Corresponding Bias
Tendency to overestimate the effect of disposition or personality and underestimate the effect of the situation in explaining social behavior.
Ex) If a student is an underachiever then he is dumb.
Ex) If you cut someone off, then you just hadn't seen him.
We see other people's behaviors as dispositional, and ours to be situational.
Jimmy's dad asks him to clean his room and he does it because he wants a clean room.
Dad pays Jimmy to clean his room... so Jimmy never has to change his attitude towards cleanliness.
Construing one's identity in relation to others.
Random Sample/ Survey Research
Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the lab
Study of naturally occurring relationships among variables.
-Used to predict things.
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulation of one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
Doing things that are not aligned with the attitudes you thought you had
-Makes you uncomfortable
-A new cheerleader making fun of band members
Characteristic of an experiment that is manipulated or changed.
-If there is an experiment looking at the effect of studying on test scores, then studying would be the independent variable
-Researchers are trying to determine if changes to the independent variable (studying) result in significant changes to the dependent variable (test results)
The variable that is being measured
-In the study on the effects of tutoring on test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants test scores
-Researchers are looking at how changes in the independent variable (hours of tutoring) cause changes in the dependent variable (test scores)
Insufficient justification effect
If you don't get paid enough to do something, you have to change your behavior
- If you got $1 to tell a lie, that's not enough to reduce your dissonance (you can't say: the only reason why Im lying is because of the money)...so that means you have to change your attitude towards lying)
If you reward people for something they like doing, this decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task
-Baseball players stop loving the game when they start getting paid a lot
- You contribute your behavior to money
Attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits (internal behavior/characteristics)
-Teacher may wonder whether a child's underachievement is due to lack of motivation and ability.
-We do this to other people- "He failed his test because he is dumb"
Attributing behavior to situational influences (outside forces) that stem from the environment
-We do this to ourselves- "I failed my test because my gramma died"
People do this to get answers they want. This can be done by the way a question is ordered, worded, etc to influence the response of the person being asked a question.
- How many times per week do you have oral sex, as opposed to have you ever had oral sex
Exaggerating your ability to have foreseen something before it happens ( I knew it all along)
If there are more people in an area, they are less likely to help someone in need because they think that someone else will step up to the plate
Dartmouth vs. Princeton Football Game
Fans from each school saw more infractions from the opposing team.
-There's an objectively reality, but we choose to construct our own reality (our intuitions shape our feelings)
Scientific study of how people think about and how they influence and relate to other people
Describes how, when a person encounters cognitive dissonance, or a situation in which a person is inconsistent with their beliefs, that person tends to justify the behavior and deny any negative feedback associated with the behavior
ABC's of life
Affect (Feelings), behavior (tendency), cognition (thoughts
Confirms the self-perception theory. We look at ourselves smiling and all of a sudden get happy
When we are unsure of our attitudes we infer them much as we would someone who would be observing us
-We look at our behavior and think "oh I might like this"
- Lady sees herself smoking and concludes that she must like smoking (even though she knows all the health hazards)
Our attitudes are shaped by behaviors (YOU ARE WHAT YOU DO)
- Attitudes are favorable/unfavorable reactions towards something/someone often rooted in your belief; exhibited in your feelings and intended behaviors
Spontaneous trait inference
An automatic tendency to associate with people the traits they impute to others
-If i tell Lane that Jack is a jerk, Lane will automatically think I'm a jerk
How the social perceive uses info to arrive at casual explanations for events.
-If you see an angry person, you decide whether they are bad tempered or just had a bad day
Illusion of control
We think we have control over chance events (gambling)
Exposure to misleading info presented between the encoding of an event and its subsequent recall causes impairment in memory.
-People swear they saw Bugs Bunny at Disney World even though that could never happen
-They say they remember touching his tail and shaking his hand (we watched a video)
A form of self-serving bias
-Attributing positive outcomes to oneself and negatives outcomes to something else
We will base our failures on the situation and not on ourselves.
-The tendency to perceive on favorably
Locus of control
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
-Internal control= personal
-External control= learned helplessness (nothing you can do to escape what is being done)
The dual attitude system
Automatic implicit attitudes are very different from your explicit attitude towards something
- Explicit attitudes change with education and persuasion
-Implicit attitudes change slowly with practice that forms new habit
Comes from praise and self-achievement
We overestimate emotion-causing events
Ex)If we were to lose a hand, we would think it'd be the end of the world (for the first few days)
Self Affirmation theory
People often experience a self-image threat after engaging in an undesirable behavior
-They can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self
If things are more relevant to you, your memory will process it better
self presentation/impression management
People who self-monitor their behavior are hoping to create good impressions. We will adapt our attitudes to appear consistent with our actions
discloses any deception and lets people know what you were testing
Who am I? (awesome, determined, stubborn)
-What we know and believe about ourselves
Beliefs that you have to organize and define yourself
-Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant info (where do they fit for me)
-If athletics is a big part of my life, then you'll notice others bodies and skills (being an athlete is one of your self schemas)
-Little kids call all 4 legged things "dogs". This is the size of their schema
Looking glass effect
How you think people see you
Emily: Im so ugly
Hannah: Im so fat. I wish I was as skinny as Emily
We give priority to our own goals
We give priority to goals of the group
Underestimating how long itll take to complete a task
Underestimating the strength of our psychological immune system, which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen
How competent we feel on a task
You cant do anything to change the outcome of something (dog stuck in cage video)
False consensus effect
Tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
we mispredict how bad we will feel after a break
- we are very bad at this
-We exaggerate and think we will never find love again
Short film in which a picture of a motionless man was alternated with various shots (plate of soup, girl in coffin, good looking woman)
-Viewers brought their own emotional reactions to this sequence of images, and then attributed those reactions to the actor, investing his impassive face with their own feelings
Implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences a response to a later stimulus
-Silk, silk, silk..what do cows drink? Milk
- Awakening/activation of certain associations
Tendency to cling to ideas even where confronted with evidence to the contrary
Explicit thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
Implicit thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness; roughly corresponds to intuition
I knew it all along
Tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs
Ex) In some quizzes people rate their answers 99% certain, but are wrong 40% of the time
Tendency to seek, illicit, and recall feedback that confirms my belief about myself
When people make judgements about the probability of events by how easy its to think of examples (we focus a lot more on fighting terrorism than cancer, even though cancer kills 2,000x the amount of people per year... This is because we automatically think of 9/11)
Fast and frugal
Tendency to presume (if you have a tattoo, then you're in a gang
Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't
Deal or No deal contestants.
Regression to the mean
Things will eventually even out (you wont keep winning the lottery every single time)
-If you feel down, things will come to normal after a few days
Prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true
-If your boyfriend breaks up with you and you think you can never fall in love again, then it might happen because because you're not open to other people
Camera Perspective Bias
Evaluations of videotaped confessions are altered by changes in the camera perspective used at initial recording
-You'll misconstrue info by where the camera is placed
-If a camera points at the murderer talking to the officer, the jury is more likely to believe the murderer
Set of expectations about the ways in which people are supposed to behave in a different situation
-People take the attitudes of the role they are playing
-If you are told to play the role of a Nazi, you'll end up being rude
Stanford Prison study
Student played the role of either a prisoner or a guard
Question: Is prison brutality caused by evil guards/prisoners or are bad prisons the ones that cause guards/prisoners to become evil?
Connection to the Holocaust (Guards had their own families, and were mostly normal people)
-People take on the roles they are given (guards think they are the authority, so they change their attitudes
Foot-in-the door phenomenon
Tendency for people who have first argued to a small request to agree later for a larger request (self-persuasion)
Low ball technique
This is a variation of the foot-in-the door phenomenon
-Persuasion and selling technique in which an item or service is offered at a lower price than is actually intended to be charged, after which the price is raised to increase profit
Ex) car salesmen
Individual's tendency to favor info that reinforces preexisting views avoiding contradictory info
-If I am a left wing liberal, I wont watch Fox news
When behaviors follow attitudes
-if we minimize other influences
-If attitude corresponds very closely to predicted behavior (voting)
-If attitude is really really potent
narcissism, self esteem, and aggresive
high self esteem- fosters initiative, resilience, etc
-Teens who have sex early in life tend to have high self esteem
-Same with gang leaders, terrorists, ad prisoner's who committed violent crimes
Inflated sense of self
A small group whose characteristics accurately reflect those of the larger population from which its drawn
Bad sample- Survery in a playboy magazine will only be answered by men and women who buy the magazine
Social behavior is...
Thinking, memory, and attitudes all operate on 2 levels
-One conscious and deliberate (explicit)
-The other unconscious and automatic (implicit)
A society's widely held ideas and values, including assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world
How is research done
Hypothesis- All are testable
Research- Process of testing hypothesis
Conclusion- Was hypothesis correct?
Integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events
Testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
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