15 terms

Cold environments

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Permafrost
Permanently frozen ground, found in polar and tundra regions.
Polar
The regions of Earth surrounding the North and South Poles. These regions are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps, the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica.
Tundra
The flat, treeless Arctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America, where the ground is permanently frozen. Lichen, moss, grasses and dwarf shrubs can grow here.
25%
The amount of the World's land surface that are Cold environments cover
LATITUDE
One of the main controlling factors of how cold a place is and what cold features an area has is. At extreme latitudes, there are Ice sheets in areas of extreme cold such as Antarctica
Arctic
Northern polar region composed largely of sea ice, which changes in thickness and extent from month to month and year to year.
Alert
Town in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world, at latitude 82°north
66.5°N
the Arctic Circle
66.5°S
The Antarctic Circle
Nunataks
ice-free areas in Polar environments
tūndâr
from the Sami (northern Finland) and the original word means "uplands" and "treeless mountain tract"
Tundra areas
cover approximately 1/5 of the world's land surface, including parts of Northern Canada and Russia.
Active layer
The layer that thaws at the surface of the permafrost in the Tubdra
Tundra climates
very harsh in winter, the precipitation falls as snow and although the average temperatures are -25°C in some months the daily minimum can be much lower, dropping below -40°C. Soils also freeze during these months, making life for most plants during this time impossible.
Polar climates
classed as a cold desert, there is very little precipitation as the air cannot hold much water vapour as it is so cold. The precipitation that does fall does so as snow and ice. Average temperatures are always below freezing point, but daytime summer temperatures can exceed 0°C.
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