13 terms

Cold evironments plant and animal adaptations

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Challenges of the Tundra
Cold, brisk winds, very short growing seasons, waterlogged and seasonally frozen soils.
Adaptations
the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment, in this case extreme conditions and low temperatures.
Moss
can cope with seasonal drought and waterlogging.
Plants have wax type of fuzzy, hairy coating
which helps to shield them from the cold and the wind. This coating also helps them to retain heat and moisture and it protects the plant seeds to allow for reproduction.
Small leaves
helps the plants to retain moisture.
shallow root systems
To cope with the thin active layer of soil above the permafrost
Lichens
can survive on bare rock with a bit of moisture.
Plants are perennials
don't die off in the winter, they have long life cycles to help with the short growing season. This means photosynthesis can begin immediately once the sunlight is strong enough
Arctic Moss
Plant that has adapted well to its cold climate. They are short and never have wooden stems and have tiny leaves, usually only one cell thick. It also lives a very long time; the shoots live seven to nine years
Caribou
are a good example of an Arctic animal that has adapted to its environment.
2 layers of fur
help Caribou with the cold. T
Compact, stocky body with a short tail and ears
to avoid Caribou losing body heat.
Two hooves instead of one
Caribou can spread feet apart to bear more weight without sinking into snow or wet ground, and also act as paddles when swimming.
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