Development of cold environments creates opportunities and challenges
a process of change that affects people's lives. It may involve an improvement in the quality of life as perceived by the people undergoing change.
the act of using resources or the act of treating people unfairly in order to benefit from their efforts or labour. In this case the exploitation of cold environments
Enormous mineral wealth in the tundra, and the potential for tourism, fishing, hunting and logging.
The Russian tundra
has been exploited for mineral deposits such as phosphates, gold, tin, natural gas; and most recently the Russian government has announced a plan to use nuclear powered oil rigs to exploit oil reserves in the Arctic Ocean.
Trans Alaska pipeline
Crosses Alaska from its hugely valuable oil fields near to Prudhoe Bay next to the Beaufort Sea in the North of the State southwards to Valdez on the Pacific Ocean.
winters in the tundra are long and cold, minimum temperatures are very low, mean monthly temperatures as low as MINUS 25°C. A challenge of these environments
The Iñupiat people
are hunter-gatherers, as are most Arctic peoples. Continue to rely heavily on subsistence hunting and fishing. They harvest walrus, seal, whale, polar bears, caribou, and fish.
Permafrost is permanently frozen ground where soil temperatures have remained below 0 °C for at least 2 years.
Surface layer in permafrost areas that does melt in the summer. Very mobile. Makes buildings sink and subside, roads to crack and even make trees topple (drunken Trees)
In the winter, which makes finding water supplies difficult.
Adaptations to active layer
Roads are constructed of gravel, and houses are often built on stilts to reduce the risk of subsidence.
Places that are difficult to reach. Many cold environments are sparsely populated and have few communication links going through them.
Svalbard Global Seed Vault
Where seeds of plants from all over the world are stored in an attempt to insure against the loss of seeds in other gene banks during large-scale regional or global crises.
To adapt to the extreme cold
Many houses have Triple glazing and insolation to prevent loss of heat from the building