The basic equipment and structures (such as roads, utilities, water supply and sewage) that are needed for a country or region to function properly.
The removal of solid mineral resources from the earth e.g metals, such as iron and aluminium; precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones, such as granite; and solid fuels, such as coal and oil shale.
Positive multiplier effect
Where one good development leads to other good developments. E.g. development in tundra creates employment and increases local taxes and local government spending.
huge state (nearly 2 million km2) located to the very North West of the USA. It borders the Canadian state of Yukon to the East.
are abundant in mineral resources including Copper, Coal, Iron Ore, Silver, Gold and Zinc.
Klondike Gold mine
1896 a major find of Gold was discovered over the Canadian border. The gold mined out of Alaska is estimated to have been worth $12.5 billion.
was also discovered in 1926, the platinum at Goodnews Bay is today the largest domestic source of this metal, used in electronics, dentistry, and in corrosion-resisting alloys.
Value of Gravel to Alaska - More than a billion tons have been mined
Environmental damage from mining
Toxic materials such as Arsenic can be used and open cast mining leaves huge scars on the landscape.
Chena Hot Springs
Geothermal power plant at near Fairbanks which produces power for local people. The plant has a 400kw capacity, enough for roughly 400 homes.
Oil and Gas
The largest energy source in Alaska. The North Slope area of Alaska has huge resources of petroleum which are found in the Prudhoe Bay oil field, discovered in 1968.
Employs 110,000 people and brings in $14billion to Alaska's economy.
Huge pipeline which transfers oil 1287km south to Valdez and through some rough terrain and mountains.
Problem from the Tans Alaska Pipeline, such as at Fort Greely in 2010, and there has been damage during earthquakes.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
Wildlife area thought to hold 10billion barrels of crude oil. Under threat from development
Type of fishing for money - Pollock fisheries in the Bering Sea are very important. Tourism
Are attracted by mountains, glaciers, rivers and wildlife