is a natural environment that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
is the World's southern-most continent. Made up of mainly ice (99% of the continent is covered in ice sheet) and is uninhabited aside from a few thousand scientific researchers.
The lowest ever temperatures recorded on Earth have been recorded at Vostok, Antarctica
the southern lights, a natural electrical phenomenon characterized by the appearance of streamers of reddish or greenish light in the sky
Small shrimp-like planktonic crustacean of the open seas, basis food of many creatures in the Antarctic Southern Ocean food web.
Currently protects Antarctica from development signed in 1959.
first industry to develop in Antarctica. Used for their oil and fur in the late 1700s.
all commercial seal hunting in Antarctica was stopped. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, signed in 1972, established guidelines for any future sealing.
began in Antarctic waters in the 19th century. Thousands of Whales were caught and nearly all the whales caught in the world were caught in Antarctic waters.
the International Whaling Commission banned commercial whaling, though Japan continues to take Antarctic whales in the name of scientific research.
have been found in Antarctica. Only two large mineral deposits have been found: iron ore in the Prince Charles Mountains and coal in the Transantarctic Mountains.
is growing as an industry, this is because Antarctica has abundant scenic resources.
(International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators) is an organisation which rules the companies and tries to be environmentally friendly. They regulate the boat companies and try to ensure a sustainable future for the ice continent.
an "agreement concluded between states and governed by international laws", such as the Antarctic Treaty
The Madrid Protocol
banned all mining activities in Antarctica.
is helping to monitor change in cold environments, helping people to communicate better so improving their lives and even bringing new employment opportunities to cold environments.
has been used to monitor ice thickness in the Antarctic. In 2017 a huge crack was identified on the Larsen C ice shelf and scientists are using the data to predict when it may break of into the sea.
has arrived in parts of the Arctic Tundra allowing native people better communication access, whilst a fibre optic internet cable is being laid through the Arctic.
are investing in tundra areas as costs are low and the cold climate reduces the costs needed to cool down servers and other equipment. E.g. Facebook Lulea, Sweden
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Environmental impacts of alternative approaches to waste disposal
Urban waste generation
River restoration and conservation in damaged urban catchments