Terms in this set (76)
aging is changes to adaptability of the system to:
what differentiates disease from normal aging?
pain should not be a part of aging, if pain is keeping them from doing the things they do
total # of cells decreases and become less alike in structure and less organized in function
Increased deposition of lipofuscin - particularly in the heart and brain tissue. Lipofuscin is:
T or F: lipofuscion does not accumulate in all cells
true.. mostly hear and brain tissue
how does body composition change with age?
decrease in lean muscle tissue and increase in fat concentration,
what is the only organ that increases in size with age?
what happens to collagen adn elastin fibers?
what does crosslinkning of collagen and elastin do to ligaments?
increases tensile strength and stiffness
reduction fo the amount of elastin in tissues results in what common conditions of aging
wrinkles and stiffening in arteries adn bronchioles
reactivation of the varicella virus
side effect of herpes zoster
result from prolonged pressure and damage to the skin from shear force
how long do ulcers take to heal?
highest incidence of malignant skin tumors age
above 60 years old
what deficiency can affect collagen formation leading to weak, stiff aching muscles and joints?
vitamin C defienciency
decreased ______ leads to decreased fluid retention
what happens to cartilage when it dehydrates?
becomes stiff and thins
decrease in _______ leads to decline in ease of movement of connective tissues leading to tissue degradation
how to increase hyaluronic acid production?
advanced stages of cartilage deterioration and thinning and decreaed hydration
Posture changes due to:
loss of flexibility, changes in collagen and elastin, declines in strength, loss of bone mass in spine, loss of nucleus pulposus and flattening due to calcification of the annulus fibrosis
osteoporosis is found in one out of ___ postmenopausal females.
when does rate fo loss of 1% calcium /year start for women?
30-35 years old
when does rate of loss fo 1%/year of calcium for men start?
some causes of osteoporosis
decreased estrogen levels, immobility, hyperthyroidism, less vitamin D3
when does muscle strength peak?
20-30 years old
when does strength begin to decline?
changes in force production in aging
reduction in size and number of fibers
what type of muscle fibers are most affected by age?
older individuals can increase msucle performance at a rate_____ younger individuals
which aspect of muscle performance is most affected by age?
3 changes in energy and endurance
decrease in myosin ATP activity, decreased max V02 levels at higher levels of activity, decreased delivery of 02 and nutrients via cardiac system
T or F: no change in endurance capacity of muscle correlated with age
neuromuscular junction changes 3
decrease in number of neurons per fiber, alterations in neurotransmission (power), increased recruitment of motor units of given task with age (takes more to do less)
polymyalgia rheumatica: only seen in those over ____ years old, pain weakness and stiffness in _______ muscle groups, relapsing ____ disease
50, proximal, systemic disease
what does polymyalgia rheumatica respond to?
time frame for polymyalgia rheumatica
what can plymyalgia rheumatica lead to?
4 changes to CNS and PNS with age
1. decline in brain mass in cortex and cerebellum 2. delay impulse transmission 3. decrease conduction velocity, 4. declines in balance, coordination, cognitive abilities, and ability to react to changes
parkinsons disease is associated with decreased_______ beyond found in normal aging
what is the most common movement disorder
essential tremor (benign)
T or F: there is not diagnostic tool for parkinsons disease
T or F: elderly often cannot maintain balance when vision and somatosensory are removed due to normal degeneration of the vestibular system
primary pathology that affects balance in the elderly is:
what happens to sweat production as we age?
what happens to touch as we age?
lens becomes more dense and inelastic
what happens to the pupils with age?
react more slowly to light
what can decreased tear production lead to?
why is far vision easier?
because achieved by muscle relaxation
increase in intraoccular pressure
increased density of the lens
cant tell blue and green apart
clustering of collagen material in vitreous body of the eye
sensorineural hearing loss; changes in the inner ear or auditory nerve prevent transmission to the brain
what frequencies do presbycusis adults loose?
higher and lower frequency levels
what happens to taste and smell as we age?
become less acute
gastrointestinal changes as we age
decline in esophagus motility; hiatal hernias common; reduction in motility fo stomach, colon, and sm intestine
chronic inflammation of the lining of the stomach that results in poor absorption of vitamin B12 and pernicious anermia
symptoms of pernicious anemia
low energy levels, confusion, peripheral neuropathies
how to treat pernicious anemia
relation of meds and aging
liver and kidney function decline, so may have toxic effects of doses of different drugs
T or F: as we age we have a decreased ability fo the pancreas to increase insulin production in response to increased blood glucose
true.. pancreatic changes
what can lead to increased risk of bladder infection in the aged?
increased residual urine in the bladder
T or F: overall intelligence is not affected by normal aging
capacity to use unique kinds of thinking to solve unfamiliar problems
acquired through education and acculturation, learn from environment
what type of intelligence declines with age
nearly __% over 80 yo develop sever cognitive impairment
what accounts for 2/3 of nursing home admissions?
cognitive problems can be reversible if result from ____. ____ or ____
metabolic, toxic derangements, psychiatric illness
presents with dementia, slow shuffling gait and urinary incontinence
normal pressure hydrocephalus
Merzenich proposed that aging is a consequence of _____
what does negative plasticity result from?
degraded peripheral sensory inputs; declinign CNS processing
how can age-related brain function be reversed
skilled training that promotes positive plasticity
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