iv practice test

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.Hypodermoclysis is used to treat?
Mild to moderate dehydration
.How do you asses a decrease in ascites?
the skin is shinier over the abdomen
.The patient has a serum sodium level of 116 mEq/L, and is lethargic and complains of headache. What is an appropriate treatment for this patient?
Administer a hypertonic solution
.Which blood group can be transfused in an emergency to any patient regardless of blood type with little risk of reaction?
Type O Negative
.A Patient whose total body fluid is normal can still exhibit signs and symptoms of hypovolemia due to:
Third spacing Third-spacing occurs when too much fluid moves from the intravascular space (blood vessels) into the interstitial or "third" space-the nonfunctional area between cells.)
A patient must sign a consent form for IV administration ..True or false?
False. only verbal consent needed however patient must be AAOX3
Indications for I.V. therapy include?
Administer medications, provide enteral nutrition,administer fluids, monitor hemodynamic functions
Handwashing is the first step in infection control..true or false?
True
Fluids include:
Cations, Anions, Protein, Glucose
The advantages of central line therapy include:
Ability to infuse fluids rapidly, draw blood specimens, measure CVP
Blood flows from the right side of the heart directly to?
Lungs
When hanging TPN use a 1.2 micron filter..true or false?
True.
Human leukocyte antigen filters are used for patients who?
Are immunocompromised, have received multiple transfusions of platelets, require organ transplants
Which of the following is considered both an advantage and disadvantage of IV drug administration?
Immediate drug action
.You are administering amphotericin B, but neglect to wrap the tubing in protective foil. This will result in a?
Physical incompatibility
.A patient receiving an infusion of KCL complains of pain soon after the infusion starts. The best way to respond to this is?
Apply warm compress
Can an arterial line be used for infusion of all medications and fluids?
NO!!! Absolutely no fluids or medications are infused in the arterial line with the exception of heparinized NS to maintain patency.
You suspect your patient has a pneumothorax after a central venous catheter is placed in the subclavian vein. The signs and symptoms include:
chest pain, dyspnea,Cyanosis, crepitus,Decreased breath sounds on affected side, abnormal chest x-ray
The following factor will place a patient at greatest risk for a febrile transfusion reaction:
Multiple transfusions
Before hanging any blood product, ensure that:
two practitioners have checked the label,the iv is working, vital signs are taken,patient is identified
A patient may benefit from Parenteral Nutrition when they have which of the following nutritional deficiencies:
increased metabolic needs, decreased food intake, GI disorders
When applying a transparent dressing, it is important to:
Tuck the dressing around and under the hub of the catheter.
One EKG change you will see if a patient has hyperkalemia is?
Peaked T waves
Which is the preferred and most accessible site for IV insertion in an infant under 6 months of age?
Scalp
Signs and symptoms of a blood transfusion reaction include:
↑ temperature, tachycardia, respiratory distress, hypotension
The patient complains of swelling at the IV site, blanching, and that the arm feels cool to touch and tight. This indicates?
Infiltration
SXS: Swelling at the I.V. site, discomfort, burning, decreased skin temperature, and blanching around the site.
A life threatening even associated with hypercalcemia is?
Seizures
Any IV drug must be compatible with the solution it is mixed in. The solution which would carry the least risk for incompatibility would be?
Saline soultion
The same procedure is followed whenever transfusing whole blood, RBC's,WBC's , or platelets...True or false?
True
.which route for administering medication is the most effective for quickly reaching therapeutic levels?
I.V.
When taking the blood pressure, the patient exhibits a carpal spasm. Which should be assessed next?
Check for Chvostek's sign
To minimize the risk of blood transfusion reaction, which tests are most important to screen for incompatibilities?
Blood typing, RH typing, Cross match
A patient has an IV solution of dextrose 5% in half normal saline infusing. This is an example of?
Hypertonic Fluid
The most common vein used for the insertion of a central line is?
Subclavian vein
One of the causes of hyperchloremia is hyponatremia, true or false?
False. Hyperchloremia could be caused by hypernatremia and hypochloremia could be caused by hyponatremia.
Which of the following statements regarding solutes and diffusion is accurate?
They move from an area with a higher concentration to an area with a lower one..
Most of the calories in TPN come from which element?
Dextrose
When caring for a patient receiving chemotherapy and there is a risk for exposure from the drugs or body fluids, you must wear?
Disposable gloves
To treat an extravasation, the first step is to?
STOP THE INFUSION is the first step!!!!
Then notify the MD, remove catheter unless needed to instill the antidote and attempt to aspirate as much fluid as possible. estimate amount of fluid infused and elevate the extremity. Apply warm or cold compress.
A patient receiving IV therapy has redness at the site. In addition, the site is swollen, the patient complains of pain, and you feel a cord when palpating. These findings suggest what degree of phlebitis?
3+
What is normal sodium levels?
135-145
What is normal potassium levels?
3.5-5.0
What is normal chloride levels?
96-106 meq/l
What is normal calcium levels?
8.9-10.1 mg/dL
What is normal phosphorus levels?
2.5-4.5 mg/dL
What is normal Magnesium levels?
1.5-2.5 mg/dL
What are the SXS of hypernatremia?
Irritability, thirst, fever, decreased urine output,flushed skin, hypertension
What are the symptoms of Hyponatremia? Irritability, fatigue, muscle weakness, tachycardia, headache, hypotension, increased urine output.
...
What are the SXS of Hyperkalemia?
Muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, lethargy,bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias.
What are the SXS of hypokalemia?
fatigue, weakness,leg cramps, weak irregular pulse, hypotension,hyperglycemia, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias.
What are the SXS of Hyperchloremia?
Stupor,rapid/deep breathing, muscle weakness.
What are the SXS of Hypochloremia?
Increased muscle excitabilit, tetany, decreased respiration's.
What are the SXS of hypercalcemia?
Anorexia, nausea, fatigue,constipation,dehydration headache, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias.
What are the sxs of Hypocalcemia?
Muscle spasms or cramping in calf muscles, tetany,positive chvostek or trousseau sign, hyperreflexia, laryngospasm, cardiac arrhythmias.
What are the SXS of hyperphosphatemia?
Anorexia, nausea, tetany, tingling,cramps,nervousness, cardiac arrhymias.
What are the sxs of hypophosphatemia?
Lethargy, stuttering/stammering,joint stiffness, memory loss, muscle pain.
What are the SXS of hypermagnesemia?
Muscle weakness, lethargy,nausea,hypotension, slow/weak pulse,bradycardia,decreased L.O.C
What are the sxs of Hypomagnesemia?
Dizziness,confusion,leg cramps, nausea, difficulty swallowing, cardiac arrhythmias.
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