50 terms

Psychology Exam 1

Wilhelm Wundt investigated which of the following phenomena?
fundamental psychological processes, such as mental reaction times in response to visual and auditory stimuli
Wilhelm Wundt:
was a German physiologist who established the first psychology research laboratory at the University of Leipzig.
Which of the following was the first "school" of thought or approach in psychology?
The early psychological school called structuralism emphasized the study of:
the elemental components of sensations, feelings, and conscious experience.
Wilhelm Wundt defined psychology as:
the study of consciousness.
_____ wrote On the Origin of Species, which was published in _____.
Charles Darwin; 1859
Which of the following people played a key role in establishing psychology as a scientific discipline in the United States?
William James
Which early school of psychology examined how psychology could be applied to education, child rearing, and the work environment?
Both structuralists and functionalists agreed that:
psychology should study conscious experience.
The founder of psychoanalysis was
Austrian physician Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalysis emphasized:
unconscious causes of behavior.
Your therapist is very interested in your dreams, blocked memories, and slips of the tongue. On which approach to psychology is your therapist probably basing his psychotherapy?
The early school of psychology called behaviorism
grew out of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov's pioneering research in which he conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell.
Behaviorism was characterized by:
the rejection of consciousness as a topic in psychology and a focus upon observable behavior.
The founder of behaviorism was:
John Watson.
Which of the following statements about behaviorism is TRUE?
John B. Watson argued that consciousness was not a usable concept and considered consciousness to be a concept related to superstition and magic.
Which of the following approaches dominated American psychology for the first half of the twentieth century?
When researchers create questions to investigate, generate evidence, and draw conclusions, they are guided by a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that is (are) called:
the scientific method.
Psychologists assume that:
behavior and mental processes have a cause or causes.
Which of the following is NOT a step in the scientific method?
apply the findings to solve human problems
When psychologists systematically observe and record behaviors as they occur in their natural settings, they are using a descriptive method called:
naturalistic observation.
The primary goal of naturalistic observation is to:
detect natural behavior patterns.
Why do researchers try to avoid being detected by their participants when engaged in naturalistic observations?
Naturally occurring behavior patterns might not occur if the participants become aware that they are being observed.
This drawing shows the typical structures found on a neuron. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = dendrites, 2 = cell body, 3 = axon, 4 = myelin sheath
Neurons are:
highly specialized cells that receive and transmit information from one area of the body to another.
This cross-sectional drawing of the human brain depicts four structures that are key components of the limbic system. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = hypothalamus, 2 = thalamus, 3 = hippocampus, 4 = amygdala
There are roughly _____ neurons in the human brain.
100 billion
Acetylcholine is:
involved in movement and memory.
Miguel jogs about five miles a day. At roughly the three-mile point, Miguel usually experiences a rush of positive feelings due to _____ levels of _____.
increased; endorphins
The two main divisions of the nervous system are the _____ and the _____.
peripheral nervous system; central nervous system
In combination, the brain and spinal cord make up the
central nervous system.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
The peripheral nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.
In the _____, information is communicated along nerves.
peripheral nervous system
The heightened physical arousal that characterizes the fight-or-flight response involves the _____ branch of the nervous system.
In general, the sympathetic nervous system _____, while the parasympathetic nervous system _____.
arouses and mobilizes; maintains and conserves
The brainstem is made up of the _____ and the _____.
midbrain; hindbrain
Which of the following represents the largest region of the brain?
the forebrain
The primary communication link between the left and right cerebral hemispheres is called:
the corpus callosum.
Which best describes the surface of the cerebral cortex?
numerous folds, wrinkles, bulges, ridges, and valleys
This image depicts a cross section of the human eye. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = cornea, 2 = lens, 3 = fovea, 4 = retina
This image depicts the path that sound waves take through the human ear. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = semicircular canals, 2 = cochlea, 3 = eardrum, 4 = pinna
In psychology, the term sensation formally refers to:
the process of detecting a physical stimulus such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
In contrast to sensation, the term perception is formally defined as the:
active mental process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory data.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
There is no clear boundary between the processes of sensation and perception as we experience them.
The smallest possible stimulus which can be detected half the time, or the minimum level of stimuli that we can detect, is called:
the absolute threshold.
The smallest possible difference between two stimuli which can be detected is called the:
difference threshold, or just noticeable difference.
John puts one toe into the swimming pool and shivers because the water is so cold. He grits his teeth and dives in anyway. After about ten minutes, the temperature of the water seems quite comfortable to him. This example illustrates the principle of:
sensory adaptation
According to the trichromatic theory of color vision:
cones come in three basic varieties: red-sensitive, green-sensitive, or blue-sensitive.
According to the text, which body areas are the MOST sensitive to pain?
. the back of your knee, your neck, and the crook or bend of your elbows
According to the text, which body areas are the LEAST sensitive to pain?
the tip of your nose, soles of your feet, and balls of your thumbs